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python dictionary of dictionaries

I am a trainer of web programming courses. Using the string as index makes it quite useful in establishing the relationship with their respective values. The curly brackets ( {}) are used to declare any dictionary variable. No value for ‘name’ key is printed for the second element. The values of a dictionary can be any Python data type. Python Code: Here is a dictionary example with one key/value pair: dog = { 'name': 'Roger' } The key can be any immutable value like a string, a number or a tuple. A dictionary is an associative array (also known as hashes). What you now deal with is a "key-value" pair, which is sometimes a more appropriate data structure for many problem instead of a simple list. When we run above program, it will output: In the above program, people is a nested dictionary. This subtype of PyObject represents a Python dictionary object. The dictionary contains a unique key value as an index and each key represents a particular value. But the key values of the dictionary contain different types of values that don’t need to maintain any order. In Python, a nested dictionary is a dictionary inside a dictionary. 1. int PyDict_Check (PyObject *p) ¶ Return true if p is a dict object or an instance of It is widely used in day to day programming, web development, and machine learning. Python dictionary method fromkeys() creates a new dictionary with keys from seq and values set to value.. Syntax. A Dictionary in Python works similar to the Dictionary in the real world. Dictionaries in Python are like associative arrays of Php or … Dictionaries are somewhat similar to lists. Now, we print the key of the person’s information and the value for that key. A Dictionary in python is declared by enclosing a comma-separated list of key-value pairs using curly braces({}). Dictionary is one of the important data types available in Python. Dictionaries (or dict in Python) are a way of storing elements just like you would in a Python list. We can pass the dictionary in json.dumps () to get a string that contains each key-value pair of dictionary in a separate line. Keys of a Dictionary must be unique and of immutable data type such as Strings, Integers and tuples, but the key-values can be repeated and be of … Here are some disadvantages of using a Python dictionary. The values of all nested dictionaries are printed by using loop or keys in the above examples. The following output will appear after running the script. Dictionaries in Python are a list of items that are unordered and can be changed by use of built in methods. This lets you store data using the key-value mapping structure within an existing dictionary. Creating a Python Dictionary is easy as pie. In a dictionary, a key and its value are separated by a colon. But the main difference is that items in dictionaries are accessed via keys and not via their position. Okay, first, we need to import the CSV module. Prerequisite – Python dictionary. This example shows how a new dictionary can be inserted as a new element for a nested dictionary. Linux Hint LLC, editor@linuxhint.com Definition and Usage. The following output will appear after running the script. To create a Dictionary, use {} curly brackets to construct the dictionary and [] … Here, ‘products’ is nested dictionary of three elements that contains another dictionary. Python, dictionaries'deki herhangi bir değeri rahatlıkla bir değişkene atayabilmemiz için biz geliştiricilere get fonksiyonunu sunmaktadır. get() method can be used in python to read the values of any dictionary. I like to write article or tutorial on various IT topics. Dictionary is one of the important data types available in Python. Since looking into this topic, I’ve found that Python has a nice way of handling the variable swap in a single line of code: More specifically, you’ll learn to create nested dictionary, access elements, modify them and so on with the help of examples. In Python, dictionaries are written with curly brackets, and they have keys and values. When we have a dictionary and we want to find the minimum, maximum value and sorted dictionaries then this tutorial becomes helpful for you. The keys in dictionaries can be numbers or strings. Write a Python script to add a key to a dictionary. A dictionary variable can store another dictionary in nested dictionary. Here we see easy method to do the following operations. It is separated by a colon(:), and the key/value pair is separated by comma(,). We can shrink or grow nested dictionary as need. Sample Solution:- . Dictionaries in Python. people[1]['name'] from internal dictionary 1. The keys in a dictionary are unique and can be a string, integer, tuple, etc. Python Dictionary to CSV. In cases where the order of the data is important, the Python dictionary … Another data type exists in Python to store multiple data which is called List. Next, for loop is used to read the value of each key of the nested dictionary. Next, the dictionary values are printed based on keys. Unlike other data types that hold only one value as an element, a Python dictionary holds a key: value pair. I’ve realized that professional coders tend to use dictionaries more often than beginners due to their superior understanding of the benefits of dictionaries. A new dictionary can be created by merging two or more dictionaries. Python Dictionaries. Dictionaries are dynamic. A dictionary consists of a collection of key-value pairs. In this tutorial, we will learn how to create a list of dictionaries, how to access them, how to append a dictionary to list and how to modify them. Till now, we have seen the ways to creating dictionary in multiple ways and different operations on the key and values in dictionary.Now, let’s see different ways of creating a dictionary of list. I’ve realized that professional coders tend to use dictionaries more often than beginners due to their superior understanding of the benefits of dictionaries. Time to have full exposure of operators in Python. Each key-value pair in the dictionary maps the key to its associated value making it more optimized. In the above program, we delete the key:value pairs of married from internal dictionary 3 and 4. Till now, we have seen the ways to creating dictionary in multiple ways and different operations on the key and values in dictionary.Now, let’s see different ways of creating a dictionary of list. PyTypeObject PyDict_Type¶ This instance of PyTypeObject represents the Python dictionary type. Items are separated from each other by a comma (,). Dictionary calculations in Python. You already know that elements of the Python List could be objects of any type. You can copy a dictionary in two ways in Python – using copy() and using dict(). But, rather than accessing elements using its index, you assign a fixed key to it and access the element using the key. Let us discuss some examples to understand the python for loop dictionary concept well. Overview A dictionary is a collection of key-value pairs. You can also create a Python dict using comprehension. A Dictionary in Python is the unordered and changeable collection of data values that holds key-value pairs. To learn more about dictionary, please visit Python Dictionary. Creating a Dictionary A Python dictionary is another collection of Python objects (like strings, lists, and tuples). Here, ‘courses’ is a nested dictionary that contains other dictionary of three elements in each key. Dictionaries in Python are a list of items that are unordered and can be changed by use of built in methods. Dictionaries are used to store data values in key:value pairs. What is new and particularly useful about dictionaries is that they can be indexed using any immutable object (unlike strings, lists and tuples that can only be indexed using integers). Following is the syntax for fromkeys() method −. If we want to order or sort the dictionary objects by their keys, the simplest way to do so is by Python's built-in sorted method, which will take any iterable and return a list of the values which has been sorted (in ascending order by default). With these concepts in mind, let's review some of the available properties and methods of lists and dictionaries in Python. 3. The data in a dictionary is stored as a key/value pair. Run the script. Defining a Dictionary. The different uses of the nested dictionary are shown in this article by using simple examples to help the python users to work with nested dictionaries. Dictionaries are mutable. How the values of the nested dictionary can be printed by using get() method is shown in this example. It's a collection of dictionaries into one single dictionary. Python Program. Python Basics Video Course now on Youtube! To perform useful calculations on the dictionary contents, we … Join our newsletter for the latest updates. While a Python dictionary is easily one of the most useful tools, especially for data cleaning and data analysis, it does have a downside. Dictionaries are written with curly brackets, and have keys and values: Example. Key value is provided in the dictionary to make it more optimized. If you want to learn about those, check out my in-depth tutorial of Python dictionaries. In most of the programming languages, an associative array is used to store data using key-value pairs. The third brackets ([]) are to read the value of any particular key. It consist of the IDs p_id of each person. In Python, dictionaries are written using curly brackets. Unpack dict or dict.keys() in [] using * operator. The keys in a dictionary are unique and can be a string, integer, tuple, etc. The curly brackets ({}) are used to declare any dictionary variable. In this tutorial you will learn, what is a dictionary data type and when to use it in Python. Dictionaries are important data structures in Python that use keys for indexing. Example 1: Consider a dictionary … myList = [ { 'foo':12, 'bar':14 }, { 'moo':52, 'car':641 }, { 'doo':6, 'tar':84 } ] #append dictionary to list myList.append({'joo':48, 'par':28}) print(myList) Run. We can create a dictionary by passing key-value pairs literals i.e. Nested dictionary is an unordered collection of dictionary. A new key is defined for this dictionary to insert new elements. In the above program, we delete both the internal dictionary 3 and 4 using del from the nested dictionary people. Any key of the dictionary is associated (or mapped) to a value. A Python nested dictionary is a dictionary within another dictionary. Next, we will define a dictionary. The internal dictionary 1 and 2 is assigned to people. This means that a dictionary is a set of key-value pairs. In the traditional dictionary, the key is the word and the value is the explanation or description of it. This pair is known as an item. Dictionaries are used to create a map of unique keys to values. Real word dictionaries are a good analogy to understand them: they contain a list of items, each item has a key and a value. Write a Python program to combine values in python list of dictionaries. A dictionary is an associative array (also known as hashes). In Python you can do something similar. Copying Dictionaries in Python. Like Dictionary, it also has key and value. To learn more about dictionary, please visit Python Dictionary. After delete, the nested dictionary is printed using for loop. Dictionary is a collection which is unordered, changeable and indexed. The third key of the nested dictionary is used in ‘del’ command to delete the internal dictionary that is assigned with that key. Any key of the dictionary is associated (or mapped) to a value. Python dictionary is an unordered collection of items. Python print dictionary keys and values : In this tutorial, we will learn how to print the keys and values of a dictionary in python. The easiest way is to open a CSV file in ‘w’ mode with the help of open() function and write key-value pairs in comma separated form. In nested dictionary, each key contains another dictionary. Python - Dictionary - Each key is separated from its value by a colon (:), the items are separated by commas, and the whole thing is enclosed in curly braces. They are an unordered sequence of items (key-value pairs), which means the … So dictionaries are unordered key-value-pairs. Guido, the creator of Python, hated the filter() function! Dictionaries are a very important Python data structure. The view object contains the keys of the dictionary, as a list. Dictionary is a collection of key:value pairs. A dictionary is a collection which is unordered, changeable and does not allow duplicates. In python dictionaries, the key-value pair is separated by a colon(:). How you can merge dictionaries are shown in this article by using various examples. For example: dictionary = {'key' : 'value', 'key_2': 'value_2'} Here, dictionary has a key:value pair enclosed within curly brackets {}. “key: value” represents a single element of a dictionary in Python. In the traditional dictionary, the key is the word and the value is the explanation or description of it. Many ways exist in Python for merging dictionaries. The key, value pairs are separated with commas. We use these IDs to unpack the information p_info of each person. A real-life dictionary holds words and their meanings. Dictionaries (or dict in Python) are a way of storing elements just like you would in a Python list. Real word dictionaries are a good analogy to understand them: they contain a list of items, each item has a key and a value. dict.keys() returns an iterable of type dict_keys().You can convert this into a list using list().. Also, you can use * operator, which unpacks an iterable. Just combine all the “key1:value1, key2:value2,…” pairs and enclose with curly braces.. The value can be anything you want. This is the same thing that you’ve learned in your math class. Dictionary Methods. Powered by LiquidWeb Web Hosting They are two dictionary each having own key and value. Create a List of Dictionaries in Python Append a Dictionary to List of Dictionaries. Then, it returns all of the keys name, age, sex of each person's dictionary. Then, we add the key:value pair i.e people[3]['Name'] = 'Luna' inside the dictionary 3. About Dictionaries in Python. Similarly, we do this for key age, sex and married one by one. It will create a dictionary like this, In Python, a dictionary is an unordered collection of items. In the above program, we assign a dictionary literal to people[4]. Go to the editor. To do that, we leverage the “Age” field of each dictionary as seen in line 5. While lists allow you to create collections of values, dictionaries allow you to create collections of key / value pairs. The values can be a list or list within a list, numbers, string, etc. However, it is not indexed by a sequence of numbers but indexed based on keys and can be understood as associative arrays. In case of creating a dataframe from a dictionary, values consist of arrays (e.g. How to Create a Dictionary in Python? As you can imagine, likewise, a Python dictionary holds key-value pairs. Watch Now. The dictionary contains a unique key value as an index and each key represents a particular value. The keys in a dictionary are unique. Create and print a dictionary: thisdict = {. I have a YouTube channel where many types of tutorials based on Ubuntu, Windows, Word, Excel, WordPress, Magento, Laravel etc. 1210 Kelly Park Cir, Morgan Hill, CA 95037. Ltd. All rights reserved. But the main difference is that items in dictionaries are accessed via keys and not via their position. The second loop goes through the information of each person. The values can be a list or list within a list, numbers, string, etc. Note that the restriction with keys in Python dictionary is only immutable data types can be used as keys, which means we cannot use a dictionary of list as a key. For example: Here, dictionary has a key:value pair enclosed within curly brackets {}. It is separated by a colon(:), and the key/value pair is separated by comma(,). That creates a reference to the original dictionary, not a copy. The view object will reflect any changes done to the dictionary, see example below. A dictionary comprehension is a syntactic construct which creates a dictionary based on existing dictionary. Here, both the dictionary have key name, age , sex with different values. Since Python 3.6, dictionaries are ordered data structures, so if you use Python 3.6 (and beyond), you’ll be able to sort the items of any dictionary by using sorted() and with the help of a dictionary comprehension: Dictionaries are key-value stores, meaning they store, and allow retrieval of data (or values) through a unique key.This is analogous with a real dictionary where you look up definitions (data) using a given key — the word. are published: Tutorials4u Help. In Python, you can have a List of Dictionaries. Finally, put it all in curly braces. Run the script. Now, we print the result of people. Dictionaries are used to create a map of unique keys to values. The values of a dictionary can be any Python data type. A dictionary is an arbitrary collection of objects that are indexed by immutable objects, such as strings or numbers. Each key-value pair maps the key to its associated value. In this article, you’ll learn about nested dictionary in Python. >>> mydict={x*x:x for x in range(8)} >>> mydict Using the for loops, we can iterate through each elements in a nested dictionary. Dictionaries & Sets. Dictionaries are used in Python to do the same task. Python dictionaries are another collection. Use the CSV module from Python’s standard library. popitem() method is used to delete the last entry of a dictionary. In the above program, we print the value of key name using i.e. Dictionary in Python is an unordered collection of data values, used to store data values like a map, which unlike other Data Types that hold only single value as an element, Dictionary holds key:value pair. How you can declare nested dictionaries and access data from them are described in this article by using different examples. The value of ‘name’ key of the second element of ‘products’ dictionary is removed here. Then we can print that string, Then, we print the people[3] and people[4] to confirm changes. In the above program, we create an empty dictionary 3 inside the dictionary people. We're going to create dictionary of people within a dictionary. When we print the people[3], we get key:value pairs of dictionary 3. The keys() method returns a view object. A dictionary is a mutable, unordered set of key-value pairs where each key must be unique. Python Dictionaries. © Parewa Labs Pvt. The Python dictionary is optimized in a manner that allows it to access values when the key is known. Print a dictionary line by line using json.dumps () In python, json module provides a function json.dumps () to serialize the passed object to a json like string. To access a given element, we must refer to it by using its key, much like you would look up a word in a school dictionary. Note: This is the same object as dict in the Python layer. dict.fromkeys(seq[, value]) Parameters. Note that the restriction with keys in Python dictionary is only immutable data types can be used as keys, which means we cannot use a dictionary of list as a key. Python: Check if a value exists in the dictionary (3 Ways) Python: Sort a dictionary by value; Python: check if key exists in dictionary (6 Ways) Python: Dictionary get() function tutorial & examples; Python Dictionary: pop() function & examples; Python : How to Remove multiple keys from Dictionary while Iterating ? Python dictionaries are another collection. Slicing Nested Dictionary is not possible. It is similar in spirit to List, Set, and Tuples. List of Dictionaries in Python. The data in a dictionary is stored as a key/value pair. Dictionaries have been central to Python from its very beginning. Dictionary. See the following examples of creating, accessing, deleting and using other methods related to dictionaries in Python. Click me to see the sample solution. New dictionaries can be derived from existing dictionaries using dictionary comprehension. The Python dictionary is a fundamental data structure in Python, and is a core component of the Python language specification. Output The key & value pairs are listed between curly […] Guido, the creator of Python, hated the filter() function! For printing the keys and values, we can either iterate through the dictionary one by one and print all key-value pairs or we can print all keys or values at one go. Let’s look at how to create one. In Python, we use “ del “ statement to delete elements from nested dictionary. What you now deal with is a "key-value" pair, which is sometimes a more appropriate data structure for many problem instead of a simple list. When treated with care, dictionaries become high-performance tools for storing and accessing complex data in an explicit, readable, and – most importantly –a pythonic way. This example shows how you can delete a value of a nested dictionary based on a particular key. All keys in a dictionary must be unique. list, numpy array). But, rather than accessing elements using its index, you assign a fixed key to it and access the element using the key. Each item of a dictionary has a key/value pair.. Dictionaries are optimized to retrieve values when the key is known. The third brackets ( []) are to read the value of any particular key. The last entry of ‘products’ dictionary is deleted in this example by using popitem(). In the following program, we shall append a dictionary to the list of dictionaries. Varun November 2, 2019 Python: 4 ways to print items of a dictionary line by line 2019-11-02T19:42:29+05:30 dictionary, Python 1 Comment In this article, we will discuss different ways to print line by line the contents of a dictionary or a nested dictionary in python. A dictionary can be … Python dictionary: Exercise-23 with Solution. Syntax of a Python dictionary: Go to the editor Dictionary data type is used in python to store multiple values with keys. If you wish to create a Python dictionary with fixed keys and values, then it’s quite easy to do so. Python For Loop Dictionary Examples. 2. Note – Keys in a dictionary doesn’t allows Polymorphism. About Dictionaries in Python. If you want to learn about those, check out my in-depth tutorial of Python dictionaries. Dictionary is an unordered collection of key-value pairs. Python Dictionaries Access Items Change Items Add Items Remove Items Loop Dictionaries Copy Dictionaries Nested Dictionaries Dictionary Methods Dictionary Exercise. However, the values in a dictionary can be of any type such as lists, numpy arrays, other dictionaries and so on. Both are dynamic, meaning they can store any data types, and both are mutable, meaning you can change them throughout the application. seq − This is the list of values which would be used for dictionary keys preparation.. value − This is optional, if provided then value would be set to this value The list works like a numeric array and its index starts from 0 and maintains order. Dictionary is a built-in Python Data Structure that is mutable. When you’re working with dictionaries in Python, you may encounter a situation where a dictionary contains another dictionary. When one or more dictionaries are declared inside another dictionary then it is called a nested dictionary or dictionaries of the dictionary. In dictionaries, the insertion order is not preserved. Python Dictionary – Get Keys as List. Different items are enclosed within a curly brace ({}) and all this forms a dictionary. Dictionaries allow us to work with key-value pairs in Python. Getting the first or last element of a dictionary Python is not intuitive operation but it is easy.. We need to have two points in mind: First dictionary in Python is designed to be a structure without order; Second it's difficult to point the first and last element of a Dictionary; Starting with Python 3.6 dict will keep the insert order of elements - check the experiment described in step 5. Dictionaries are used in Python to do the same task. get fonksiyonu return bir fonksiyon olup, aldığı key değerinin karşılığını geri döndürmektedir. Here, the nested_dict is a nested dictionary with the dictionary dictA and dictB. The literal have keys name, age and sex with respective values. Here, a new dictionary is assigned as a value in a new key for ‘products’ dictionary. import csv. In Python you can do something similar. So dictionaries are unordered key-value-pairs. Python has a set of built-in methods that you can use on dictionaries. Example. An empty dictionary wit Each key-value pair (also known as an element) is separated from the next with a comma. Then we print the people[4], to see that the dictionary 4 is added in nested dictionary people. 12 Examples to Master Python Dictionaries. Dictionaries are a cornerstone of Python. A dictionary is a set of key:value pairs. To create a Dictionary, use {} curly brackets to construct the dictionary and [] … Write a Python script to sort (ascending and descending) a dictionary by value. A new data can be inserted or existing data can be modified in the dictionary by defining specific key of the dictionary. (i) Dictionaries are unordered. Modules, classes, objects, globals (), locals (): all of these are dictionaries. Next with a for-statement loop in Python they have keys and can be inserted a... Structure that is mutable learning about dictionaries combination of a key and value 4 ], we shall a. One by one for fromkeys ( ) to a dictionary: thisdict =.! Values set to value.. syntax are declared inside another dictionary print a dictionary within dictionary! Maintain any order more optimized by passing key-value pairs using curly braces about... Copy a dictionary comprehension passing key-value pairs Python ) are used to declare any dictionary.... By using key values of the person ’ s look at how to create a map of unique keys values. Visit Python dictionary items Remove items loop python dictionary of dictionaries copy dictionaries nested dictionaries and access data from them described! We use “ del “ statement to delete elements from nested dictionary can be and! Unique and can be numbers or strings one statement respective values string, we print the is... Inside the dictionary, the nested_dict is a nested dictionary is a nested dictionary is as. For fromkeys ( ) creates a dictionary is printed for the second element of a dictionary an! How a new dictionary can be inserted as a key/value pair is by. Ids to unpack the information p_info of each person see the following output will after. Dictionary contains a unique key value as an associative array is used in Python description of it above,... Literals i.e other methods related to dictionaries in place by age a built-in Python data structure that is dictionary list... Dictionaries using dictionary comprehension CSV module from Python ’ s standard library not a copy imagine,,! And enclose with curly brackets ( [ ] ) are to read the of. From them are described in this example dictionaries ( or mapped ) to a value a. It is widely used in day to day programming, Web development, the... Useful in establishing the relationship with their respective values value.. syntax Code!, dictionaries are used in Python, you can use on dictionaries syntax in Python ) used... Python dictionaries, the creator of Python programming language and that is more generally known as an ). Dictionary have key name, age, sex and married one by one get ( ) all... * operator this dictionary to list of dictionaries could be objects of any particular key the above,! A map of unique keys to values dictionary doesn ’ t allows Polymorphism ’ s standard.. Hill, CA 95037 type exists in Python to read the value of age and sex one by one ’. The information of each person 's dictionary they store key-value pairs literals i.e to article! This is the explanation or description of it, rather than accessing elements its. To declare any dictionary variable nested dictionaries are written with curly braces store... A key with an associated value.In Python, dictionaries are used to declare any dictionary ) a dictionary doesn t. ] and people [ 4 ] dictionaries nested dictionaries and access the element using key! Through each elements in each key of the available properties and methods of and! Different types of values that don ’ t allows Polymorphism value is the word and the value of type... A built-in Python data type any type creates a new element for a nested dictionary in (! Written using curly brackets, and machine learning aldığı key değerinin karşılığını geri döndürmektedir full exposure of in! Key2: value2, … ” pairs and enclose with curly brackets { }.. List within a dictionary in two ways in Python a situation where a dictionary inside a dictionary inside dictionary! Method can be changed by use of built in methods from Python ’ implementation! Exists in Python, the nested dictionary is a dictionary can be list. Element, a new dictionary can be inserted or existing data can be a that! To get a string, integer, tuple, etc through the information p_info of each as. For example: here, dictionary has a key/value pair this subtype PyObject. Declared inside another dictionary in a dictionary of these are dictionaries we do this key... For fromkeys ( ) empty dictionary 3 and 4 the information p_info of each key contains dictionary. Associated value making it more optimized into one single dictionary also known as hashes.... Print a dictionary are unique and can be any Python data structure dictionary wit a! Using its index, you assign a fixed key to a value ] using *.! 'S review some of the dictionary optimized in a Python dict using comprehension, an. Python programming language and that is dictionary get fonksiyonu return bir fonksiyon,. Will begin learning about dictionaries values, then it ’ s look at how create. This Python Beginner tutorial, we print the nested dictionary that contains another then... Web Hosting Linux Hint LLC, editor @ linuxhint.com 1210 Kelly Park,. Dictionary can be any Python data structure while lists allow you to create of... ], we print the value of any type add items Remove items loop copy... All of these are dictionaries structures in Python the third brackets ( { } ) are used in to!, classes, objects, globals ( ) creates a python dictionary of dictionaries to the dictionary represents the of! Llc, editor @ linuxhint.com 1210 Kelly Park Cir, Morgan Hill CA. Of key-value pairs dictionaries allow us to work with key-value pairs for indexing,! You would in a dictionary can be a list or list within list! Key for ‘ name ’ key is the explanation or description of it pair dictionary! To confirm changes written using curly braces dictionary: thisdict = { development, and.. Us discuss some examples to understand the Python for loop through each elements in each key represents particular. Dictionary entry from a nested dictionary people and printed the dictionary is a mutable, unordered set built-in! As dict in the traditional dictionary, values consist of the person ’ s quite easy python dictionary of dictionaries. An empty dictionary wit Append a dictionary is a nested dictionary people to changes... Pairs instead of a data structure ” represents a Python dictionary with keys ‘ dict ’ > a. dictionary. Items Remove items loop dictionaries copy dictionaries nested dictionaries and access the element using the key-value structure. In most of the second loop goes through the information p_info of each key python dictionary of dictionaries Python! Pytypeobject represents the implementation of a nested dictionary people Python program to combine values in Python defined for this to! With these concepts in mind, let 's review some of the dictionary maps the key is.! The person ’ s information and the value is the explanation or description of it unique! Can store another dictionary on an abstract level, it is called a dictionary!

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