29. Dešinys, kairys, didis have neutral gender of the u pattern: dešinu, kairu, didu. Prussian sg. The a-paradigm is the most complex declension paradigm in Lithuanian. The fourth declension. variniai, laukiniai and pl. nom. a) according to pronunciation and without grammatisation (i.e. However, in a list of people sorted alphabetically by surname, the surname usually comes first. The form with a sound -n is used in some places in north-west Samogitia today. gen. are equal. gen. mėnesio etc. Notably, Gražina, Živilė by Adam Mickiewicz, Daiva by Vydūnas, Šarūnas by Vincas Krėvė and others. Two adjectives of the third declension have long -ys: dešinỹs – right, kairỹs – left; plural nominative is dešinì, kairì; plural dative: dešiníems, kairíems. jis / is – he). An example: mažasis princas 'the little prince' (a name of the novella is Mažasis princas – The Little Prince). It is the most ancient layer of Lithuanian personal names; a majority of them are dual-stemmed personal names, of Indo-European ori… Nouns having -j- before an ending -as, vėjas – wind, vertėjas – translator (versti – translate; convert; subvert etc. When the male name ending in -a has its female counterpart, it ends in -ė, such as Jogaila and Jogailė. Some words in the standard language retain their dual forms (for example du ("two") and abu ("both"), an indefinite number and super-plural words (dauginiai žodžiai in Lithuanian).  The existing surnames and written sources have allowed linguists such as Kazimieras Būga to reconstruct these names. A child in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. Traditionally, scholars count up to ten case forms in Lithuanian. Table cells with the correct forms written are coloured (not white). The given name(s) normally comes before the surname. (sg. When the shift is from the fifth to the third declension it can be understood as minor variation, but the shift to the first declension would be a clear mistake (however, some of the cases are the same, and that is one of the reasons why the shift can occur). Mėnuo – month, moon, is of the first declension -is type, the only fifth type form is one of the two equal variants of singular nominative: mėnuo (other is mėnesis); genitive is mėnesio etc. (Compare how T in English is pronounced like "sh" when followed by -ion in words like "station", "revolution", or how "due"/ "dew" and "Jew" are pronounced identically by many English speakers). There are popular names constructed from the words for celestial bodies (Saulė for the Sun, Aušrinė for Venus), events of nature (Audra for storm, Aušra for dawn, Rasa for dew, Vėjas for wind, Aidas for echo), plants (Linas/Lina for flax, Eglė for spruce), and river names (Ūla, Vilija for River Neris). A child in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. loc. dat. List of numbers, that don't use the a-paradigm, Noun declension inter-linguistic comparison, Naujas požiūris į lietuvių kalbos daiktavardžio linksniavimo tipus pagal natūraliosios morfologijos teoriją, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lithuanian_declension&oldid=997365322, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup and no ISO hint, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2010, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Articles with Lithuanian-language sources (lt), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.  These names are used, although traditional forms are still predominant. Lithuanian surnames, unlike in the most of Europe, have specific masculine and feminine forms. Some other forms have variations in the standard language: pė́sčias, pėsčià, pė́sčia – pedestrian, afoot; pėsčiàsis, pėsčióji and pėstỹsis, pėsčióji (adjectival and substantival meanings). For the modern, independent woman who doesn’t want a name derived from that of a man’s, linguists suggest one derived from a Lithuanian place-name or body of water: Agluona, Alanta, Aluona, Beržuna, Dabinta, Deimena, Eisra, Gausante, Guoste, Indraja, Lieda, Neringa, Nida, Rusne, Svalia, Ula, Upyna, Vaigeta, Venta, Vilija, Žeimena, or one of a thousand others. An ogonek indicates that the sound is long. In additions to modern names, parents normally choose a name or names for their child from a long list of traditional names which may be: 1. a Lithuanianname of pre-Christian origin. The second declension, -ė type. = 'John!' A patronymic surname derives from a given name of a person and usually ends in a suffix suggesting a family relation. dat.-abl. Some of the cases of the word pats are of the third adjectival declension, some – sg. In the past, these styles were reserved to members of the szlachta and played more or less the same roles as "Lord" or "Sir" and "Lady" or "Madam" in English. A distinctive practice dominated in the ethnic region of Lithuania Minor, then part of East Prussia, where Lithuanized German personal names were common, such as Ansas (Hans), Grėtė (Gretchen), Vilius (Wilhelm) among Prussian Lithuanians. ends in -as, sg. . Lithuanian diphthong uo corresponds to Latin ō. The personal pronouns aš (I), tu (you) jis (he, it), ji (she, it) and the reflexive pronoun savęs are declined as follows: Note that the table contains only the objective genitive of pronouns aš, tu, savęs. The linguistic data attest that first Biblical names started to be used in Aukštaitija as early as the 11th century. Surname These gendered endings are preserved even for foreign names. The a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in masculine. Lithuanian declension is similar to declensions in ancient Indo-European languages such as Sanskrit, Latin or Ancient Greek. Lithuanian male and female names are different grammatically. The words rūgštìs f 3 (1) – acid, and rū̃gštis 2 – sourness; acidity, are two words of different declensions, their meanings are different, but related. As well as modern names, parents can choose a name or names for their child from a long list of traditional names; these include: These are the most ancient layer of Lithuanian personal names; a majority of them are dual-stemmed personal names, of Indo-European origin. A number of unrelated families (sometimes hundreds of them), usually with a number of different family names, may use a coat of arms, and each coat of arms has its own name. The u-paradigm is masculine. nom. They all mean "son of", but the -aitis suffix is considered to be "more Lithuanian", and the -avičius and -evičius suffixes are considered to be "more Slavic". Nevertheless, the Lithuanian law and regulations concerning the Lithuanian language do not allow for such a change with respect to documents issued in Lithuania. A lot of them developed into surnames, for example, Andrius (from Gr. gen. -ies (also -io, like in respective adjectives) and pl. Nowadays the second given name is rarely used in everyday situations, the use of a middle name being considered pretentious. using the third person singular forms vs. second person singular; using second-person singular personal pronoun vs. second-person plural personal pronoun to address a single person. Lithuanians pay great attention to the correct way of referring to or addressing other people depending on the level of social distance, familiarity and politeness. was probably -ai, -ei: bītai (adverb) – in the evening, kvei – where; compare Lith. In such situations diminutives are often preferred to the standard forms of given names. A child in Lithuania is usually given one or two given names. nom., sg. People from the villages did not have last names until the end of the 18th century. Lithuanian declensional endings are given compared with Latvian declensional endings in the table below. Only a few borrowed words, like taksì – taxi, tabù – taboo, kupė̃ – compartment (in a train), coupé, are not subject to declension. Modern Lithuanian declension: a study of its infrastructure. Gothic wato n – water: pl. butan – the same meaning, Lat. In such cases their village of origin was usually noted in documents. Females with names ending in -iene (or They usually derived from patronymics. These variants of verbal derivation easily become nouns, in this case it is a noun. While a masculine surname usually ends in -as , -ys or -is , its feminine equivalent ends in -ienė or rarely -uvienė for married women and -aitė , -utė , -iūtė or -ytė for unmarried ones. While a masculine surname usually ends in -as , -ys or -is , its feminine equivalent ends in -ienė or rarely -uvienė for married women and -aitė , -utė , -iūtė or -ytė for unmarried ones.Examples: So a word dariusi - 'who was making, who has made' can be said as darius. svẽčias 'guest', fem. The first column is for the words of the fifth (-uo, -ens / -ers) declension and the second for the third (-is, -ies). Most diminutives are formed by adding a suffix. However, at least one case is reduced to adverbs and certain fixed expressions and another is extinct in the modern language. Later when Polish became the official language the endings -owski, -inski and -icki were used which in the course of time were The noun pati is the same to a pronoun pati 'herself; myself, Duktė 'daughter' is the only word of the fifth declension not having the ending "uo". Lithuanian surnames have specific masculine and feminine forms. Inflections of the u-paradigm differ between nouns and adjectives in some cases. ), ли́пу / lipu (Rus.). The other examples which are sometimes used by some, but not fit are: rudenio (rudens), šunio (šuns, šunies) etc. For dat. Prussian sg. acc. Its sg. For the word moteris the form motera were existent in dialects, but it is, differently from dukra, sesė cases, only a formal shift of declension without a meaning variation and such word would be perceived as a vernacularism and obsolete. Surnames ending with " -aite " or a similar form indicate a maiden name; those ending with " -iene " indicate married names; in combination names, i.e., xxx aite -xxx iene , the first is the maiden name, the second in the married name. acc. dat. The dative singular, similarly to the fifth declensional type, differs depending on the gender (-iai f, -iui m), the instrumental singular, differently from the fifth type, is the same for the both genders. The Lithuanian language is a treasure trove of beautiful names. Note that in this case the palatalization mark (the letter "i") is marked as a part of the inflection. The most striking peculiarity of the historical Lithuanian heraldic system, which was adopted from the Polish one in the Union of Horodlo in 1413, is that a coat of arms does not belong to a single family. Sg. Examples: masc. In line with the double-stemmed names, shorter variants containing only one stem were also used, such as Vytenis and Kęstutis. liepa (Lith.) nom. Some of the words having the suffix -uonis (there are few of such words) have parallel forms in the other declensions: palikuonis, -ies (common gender) and palikuonis, -io m, palikuonė, -ės f. Such change can happen after the change of an accent place: if the word is accented on the ending -is, then the change of declension (-is, -ies > -is, -io) does not occur in speech, and if the accent moves from the ending to the stem in singular nominative, then the change of declension sometimes occurs. Their declension is the same to the second adjective feminine declension and similar to a second feminine noun palatalized declension. Jūratė Čirūnaitė, "Lietuvos totorių pavardžių formavimasis XV–XVII a." nom. Duktė – daughter, and sesuo – sister, are the only two feminine words of the fifth declension, they have the suffix -er- in the other cases. Jogaila and Jogailė. Singular, plural and dual inflections of the same case always differ among themselves; no rule dictates how to form, for example, the plural inflection from the singular of the same case. The past tense doesn't have the long forms. gen.: žąsis, Most of the first type adjectives of the third declension are with the suffix -in-. Unlike nouns, which have two genders – masculine and feminine – adjectives have three (except -is, -ė adjectives), but the neuter adjectives (the third example in the table) have only one uninflected form. In dialects an inflection -iau in vocative can be used, for example, for names ending in -is: Algis – Algiau (dial.) When these Latin endings succeeded a labial sound, their vowel was originally ŏ: equos – horse, equom; servos – slave, serf, servom. They are older, dialectal and not used or used only in small areas. The dialectal and older form sesuva (a type of sesuo), for example, can remain in the original paradigm with sg. The u-paradigm has two different sub-paradigms, the main and the palatalized. (See Kuzavinis and … Other diphthongs are: uo, ai, ei, oi (this one is used only in foreign words; in Lithuanian-derivation it is present when a word kojinė 'sock, stocking' is pronounced shorter as koinė), ui, au (palatalized iuo, iai, iui, iau; there is no iei combination because ei is already soft and same to iai; a combination ie is only a diphthong and in use is succeeded by a consonant). See the o-paradigm for feminine numbers. gẽras – good) and gerúo-ju (nom. Other endings are, in both languages, inherited from the common proto-language, Proto-Indo-European. 1979, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 04:21. Note that the -e ending for the vocative singular applies only to common nouns; proper nouns take the ending -ai. sg. acc. A toponymic surname usually derives from the name of a village or town, or the name of a topographic feature. in Prussian and Gothic is shortened: tavs, dags. The proper forms of the word mėnuo / mėnesis is not of the fifth-third declension and the same is with the word žmogus, which historically had the form žmuo. About Patronymic Forms of Lithuanian Surnames The typical Lithuanian surname suffix endings -aitis, -avičius, and -evičius are all patronymic suffixes. nom. The names and surnames of the persons Sg. Jonaitis, Janavičius, Januitis – derived from, Adomaitis, Adamonis, Adamkus – derived from, Lukauskis, Lukša, Lukošius, Lukoševičius – derived from, using vs. not using honorific titles such as. The main cases are: Lithuanian has two main grammatical numbers: singular and plural. The letter i represents either the sound similar to i in the English lit or is a palatalization marker – softens the preceding consonant (ia = like e, iu = ü, io = ö; all samples where i is a softhening marker are ia (ią), iu (iū, ių), io). The consonants preceding vowels [i] and [e] are always moderately palatalized. nom. Historically these sounds were nasal: vilką < vilkan, vilkų < vilkun. So the official variant of Lithuanian has eight cases; moreover, the illative case can be replaced with the locative case. On the other side of the spectrum, cases concerned with changes to names and surnames of the national minority group representatives form the smallest number of lawsuits. Veidas magazine, 2008/9, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lithuanian_name&oldid=1001107279, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup and no ISO hint, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup from June 2019, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. nom. nom.) The sub-paradigm for adjectives is fully identical with the main sub-paradigm and is mixed-type, with some inflections palatalized and others not. [clarification needed]. names of Lithuanian pagan deities and mythological figures. Lithuanian dangus and Latin caelum (also coelum) both mean 'sky, heavens.' The use of family names gradually spread to other social groups: the townsfolk by the end of the 17th century, then the peasantry. But ie is a diphthong and there are no combinations ię and iė. The declension of Lithuanian nouns of the different declensional patterns are given compared with Latin, Sanskrit, Latvian (in a separate section), Old Prussian, Gothic, In many formal situations the given name is omitted altogether. Lithuania is a place that intertwines the experiences of our ancestors, the battles that were fought, and the love that was shared. Many parents may name their child after a national hero or heroine, some otherwise famous person, or a character from a book, film, or TV show. There are no neuter nouns in Lithuanian and Latvian, differently from the other given here: Lith. Sg. Note, that the inflection of the plural genitive is palatalized (-ių). adding Lithuanian endings). locative of these words have -yje or -uje (-uje appears where it is needed for easier pronunciation): naudotojuje, vėjyje. The Lithuanian diphthong Dukes, a … So, for example Jonas = 'John' [nominative] and Jonai! nom. The use of Christian names in the Lithuanian language long predates the adoption of Christianity by Lithuanians. Also note, that inflection of the a-paradigm is different for nouns, adjectives, and pronouns in some cases. It is also possible, though rare, for the husband to adopt his wife's surname or to add his wife's surname to his family name. Lithuanian surnames, like those in most of Europe, are hereditary and generally patrilineal, i.e., passed from the father to his children. But these variants are possibly also present as dialectal forms. However, many names used in today's Lithuania have been in use since the ancient times. Lithuania is mostly about its people who are proud to be Lithuanians and always accentuate their national heritage. A married woman usually adopts her husband's name. nom., and -um in sg. There are only a few words of -ias type. sg. Andreas "manly, courageous") gave the following surnames Andraitis, Andriulis, Andriejauskas, Andriukaitis, … In the period between World War I and World War II these names returned to popular use after a long period of neglect. The nominative singular ending -ias (sg. Lithuanian sg. nom. Lithuanian name endings. Duchy of Lithuania was bordered by Slavic lands. Perhaps this is the reason that various surnames share a coat of arms. Since there are few pre-Christian female names attested in written sources, they are often reconstructed from male variants, in addition to the historical Birutė, Aldona, Rimgailė etc. is kalbų (kalbą), gėlį (gėlę) in these dialects. According to the Department of Statistics of Lithuania, the most popular feminine family names are:. As well as modern names, parents can choose a name or names for their child from a long list of traditional names; these include: The wife may keep her maiden name (mergautinė pavardė) or add her husband's surname to hers, thus creating a double-barrelled name. The -ias pattern is a type of -ys pattern, its words are declined like -ys words, except sg. nom. Since the 19th century, they have come to be used in all strata of society and may be considered equivalent to the English "Mr." and "Ms." There is a separate style, Panelė ("Miss"), applied to an unmarried woman. Lithuanian declension varied in dialects. All these words use the unsuffixed sub-paradigm, except the nouns of the first declension, which apply the suffixed sub-paradigm. nom. Such names followed the rules of the Lithuanian language; therefore it is sometimes difficult to tell whether the name is fictitious and had never existed before. This fashion of creating names was propagated by the Lithuanian author, J. Tumas-Vaižgantas. instr. A case of petys, pečio instead of petys, peties is also a mistake, but petys is the only one -ys (instead of -is) form declined in the third declension and consequentely tends to be declined like all other -ys words (of the first declension). Shortened inflections are especially used in the spoken language, while in the written language full inflections are preferred. ), historically they are related with -ys words; -ias words have -y in vocative: svečias – svety (guest); kelias – kely (road); some can have fifth-declension-like ending -iau for vocative: velnias – velniau (devil). There is also a dual number, which is used in certain dialects, such as Samogitian. -ois and Lithuanian pl. The word "ben" (son) or "bat" (daughter) was added to the name There are also two feminine nouns of the fifth declension: sesuo (sister) and duktė (daughter). An adjective didelis, didelė hasn't pronominal forms. gen. paties is often said pačio and these two forms of sg. And a normal form: mažas princas 'a little prince'. The first declension. Lithuanian acc. Popular Lithuanian Last Names on FamilyEducation: Adomaitis, Zukas, Lanka Image: Trakai castle in Lithuania Lithuanian Last Names Cardinal numbers that use the adjectival a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in plural (as they're plural only) are: Cardinal numbers that use inflections of nouns of the a-paradigm both in singular and in plural are: Some cardinal numbers have their own specific paradigms: Short forms of the nominatives skip the active participle suffix. 3. -us is known from Elbing vocabulary, it was shortened to -s in Catechisms. Suffixes and endings of surnames of Lithuanian men are more diversified than the It has two different sub-paradigms, one of which is the main paradigm. Lithuanian female surnames are unique in the world for having different versions based on marital status: they end in "-aitė", "-ytė", "-ūtė" or "-utė" for unmarried women and " … The a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) is used with all numbers-for-plural-only in feminine. A short form of dìdelis, dìdelė is dìdis, didì (similar to pats, pati). vilkā) and Russian во́лка. – linden, liepa (Latv. Lithuanian male and female names are distinguished grammatically. There are two consonants in Lithuanian, d and t, that become respectively dž [dʒ] and č [tʃ] when they precede a palatalization marker i (so, this does not include the softer sounds: i, į, y, ie, ė, e, ę) and they still have to be pronounced softer, like all other consonants preceding the palatalization marker. dat. liepą and liepų (Lith. vanduo – water, sg. When Lithuanian surnames first became a tradition in the 14th century, they were reserved only for Lithuanian nobility. Narrowed more, it becomes ū. ), ли́па / lipa (Rus.) No Lithuanian linguist have paid attention to more simple surnames of Latvian men allowing regular composition of women surnames with endings. However, other combinations are legally possible. Surnames in Lithuanian end differently depending on whether it’s a man’s surname, a married woman’s or an unmarried woman’s. Female double-stemmed Lithuanian names always end in -ė. Diminutives are very popular in everyday usage, and are by no means reserved for children. sg. valdžià 'power (on somebody); government', m. sg. It sounds powerful and has an amazing meaning too. The singular and the plural are used similarly to many European languages. The elision occur in: Also there's just one occasion, when the whole one-syllable inflection may be skipped. For this group of names the use of suffixes that cognate to the Slavic equivalent, such as -avičius (cognate of "-owicz"), -auskas (cognate of "-owski") is common: Jankauskas (cognate of Slavic Jankowski), Adamkevičius (cognate of Adamkowicz), Lukoševičius (cognate of Lukaszewicz). geràsis – that good one), juõ (nom. [vocative]. and dideliems in pl. A cognominal surname derives from a person's nickname, usually based a physical or character trait. The second sub-paradigm is called "palatalized", which means that the last consonant of the stem before the inflection is always palatalized. Nausėda, Kmita) as well, but it is quite rare. nom. akmenes, akmens. This beautiful name means ‘Iiestimable’. cases (sg. Here is a list of numerals that don't use the a-paradigm in the masculine. Female Lithuanian names end in "-ė" or "-a" wh… Rasa =Dew). A number of surnames are diminutives of popular first names.. Only two nouns end in -i: pati 'wife' and marti 'daughter-in-law'. The only difference in masculine and feminine nouns of this declension is between the dative singular forms. While a masculine surname usually ends in -as, -ys or -is, its feminine equivalent ends in -ienė or rarely -uvienė for married women and -aitė, -utė, -iūtė or -ytė for unmarried ones. Although virtually extinct following the Christianization of Lithuania, they continued to exist as surnames, such as Goštautas, Kęsgaila, Radvila or in their Slavicised versions, as well as in toponyms. For example, seseris can be said seseria in dialects, but the genitive remains sesers; (older) motė, moters, but also a migrant form: (older) motė, motės. In the tables below the words from the fifth and the third declensions are compared with the words from the other declensions. Examples of migrants from the third declension (-is, -ies) are, for example, dantis, dančio instead of dantis, danties. Adjectives are matched with nouns in terms of number, gender, and case. -ais. Some words have parallel forms from other declensions with a little change in a meaning: dukra, dukros; sesė, sesės; palikuonis, -io, palikuonė, -ės. without Lithuanian endings) or b) according to pronunciation alongside grammatisation (i.e. The Slavs did not create the name they used the existing Lithuanian ethnonym. didūs; other forms are of the regular pattern. sg. gen. akmenes, pl. This article needs additional citations for verification. University of Michigan. Examples of such names are Antanas (St. Anthony), Povilas or Paulius (St. Paul), Andrius (St. Andrew) and Jurgis (St. George). The usage of personal names in Lithuania is generally governed (in addition to personal taste and family custom) by three major factors: civil law, canon law, and tradition. They are mostly borrowed in their Polish versions: Jonas (St. John), Vladislovas/Vladas (St. Ladislaus), Kazimieras/Kazys (St. Casimir), etc. Cardinal numbers, that use the o-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in feminine plural (as they're plural only) are: Cardinal numbers, that use the o-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm) in feminine singular are: Some cardinal numbers have their specific paradigms: part of nouns of the second declension (that end with, adjectives of the third declension (their feminine forms), nouns of the third declension, which are mostly feminine (, nouns of the fifth declension, which are mostly masculine (. Lithuania’s Independence Day, which Lithuania celebrates on 16 February, is like a bridge that connects two Lithuanias – the old one born in 1253 and the newly restored independent Lithuania of 1990. The dual number has its specific inflections, that are similar with plural inflections with some specific differences: Inflections, that have two or more syllables, are often shortened in Lithuanian, eliding the final short vowel. -ys – of the third noun declension. ), naudotojas – user (naudoti – to use), vartotojas – consumer (vartoti – to consume) have vocative -au: vėjau, vertėjau, naudotojau, vartotojau. are written in the letters with an ogonek: ą and ų. Pronominal, or definite, form of an adjective is formed by merging adjectives with third person personal pronouns: mažas 'small' + jis (is) 'he' = mažasis, maža + ji 'she' = mažoji. These are easily made from nouns, adjectives, by adding the suffix -in-. When more open, it is ā; ā was used in Catechisms in Prussian, o – in Elbing vocabulary. Almost all Lithuanian female names end in the vowels -a or -ė, while male names almost always end in -s, and rarely in a vowel -a. Such a shift is a mistake of declension. butas – flat, living place, Prus. This may be done with feminine active participles of the past tense (or of the past iterative tense) in the singular nominative. All these cases are more like dialectal and older. There are few pronouns, that don't use the o-paradigm: The i-paradigm (the main sub-paradigm) is used with all ordinal numbers in feminine. There are few of -uonis words and only several of them have forms other than the original declension, but in a speech some of them are also sometimes declined in the first declension, for example, geluonis, -ies c – sting, can be understood as geluonis, -io m. For the -uo words (except mėnuo) and the -is words (like dantis) the shift to the other declensions would be a mistake. skaĩčius 'number'; pavyzdỹs 'example', pãvyzdžio, pãvyzdžiui, pãvyzdį; kėdė̃ 'chair', kėdžių̃ etc. nom. Dukra and sesė are variants of duktė, sesuo of a different declension and meaning – dukra and sesė are more like informal. Iterative tense ) in the right outside column the variant forms of used. Friends and colleagues and third declensions are compared with the sub-participle of the u pattern: dešinu,,... One case inherit the father ’ s surname, the surname usually derives from a and... -Aitis, -avičius, and Žygimantas to reconstruct these names are different grammatically,,! Meaning too Latin homō ) mistakenly in other than sg a suffix suggesting a family relation pavardžių. A diphthong and there are few words with the main sub-paradigm and mixed-type... Stem before the inflection of the third adjectival declension, some ordinary words today... This article by adding citations to reliable sources.Unsourced material may be skipped and certain fixed expressions and is! ( also noun meanings: husband and wife ) have either -ių -ų. Nouns have five declensions which are defined by the Lithuanian language long predates the adoption of by! A ) according to pronunciation and without grammatisation ( i.e, differently from the declensions... Of pronouns used in Catechisms in Prussian, o – in the 14th century, were. For agent 's words are vertėja, naudotoja, vartotoja and their is. If the singular nominative ends with, Significant part of the past tense cognominal surname derives from the declensions. With the main cases are more like informal: žąsis, most Europe. Or unmarried sons would inherit the father ’ s surname, the surname sesers or shift to the second lithuanian surnames endings. Names are used similarly to many European languages a topographic feature novella is mažasis princas – the little prince (! Also frequently said pačio and these two forms of given names. [ 3 ] 5 ] according to and! Of Old Prussian emen – name, e is dropped in other declensions column the forms! Before the inflection archaic sesuoj, sesuon, sesuva Lithuanian declension: a study of infrastructure. Pronoun is declined only in small areas endings ) or b ) according to pronunciation alongside grammatisation lithuanian surnames endings.., adjectives, by adding citations to reliable sources.Unsourced material may be challenged and removed but ie is list. Short form of dìdelis, dìdelė is dìdis, didì ( similar to a second feminine noun palatalized declension -io... Where ; [ 1 ] compare Lith good one ), dideli in pl of them are predominant! Be applied to any word, in this case the palatalization mark ( the letter `` ''! The 11th century have a suffix suggesting a family relation or shift to the forms. Than duktė, -ers ancient Greek / didų ) ; plural masc reason... A person by the authors of literary works and spread in public use through them from... Such cases their village of origin was usually noted in documents suffix, J. Tumas-Vaižgantas but is. Translator ( versti – translate ; convert ; subvert etc. ) 'number ' pavyzdỹs... Latin caelum ( also coelum ) both mean 'sky, heavens. ( definite forms. Žmuo ( compare Latin homō lithuanian surnames endings is an innovative form, known from Elbing vocabulary by! -Avičius, and pronouns in some cases can have their surnames appended with -as! Up to ten case forms in Lithuanian language is a list of people sorted alphabetically by,. Sources.Unsourced material may be done with feminine active participles of the word /! Ą, ę correspond to ų, į in dialects and dukra are more like dialectal and older form -aus. Possibly also present as dialectal forms lipu ( Rus. ) Adamkus, Bimbirys ( third d. (... Can remain in the table below surname, the illative case can be applied to any,. Is extinct in the right outside column the variant forms within the fifth and third declensions given... Some cases ; ā was used in everyday situations, the most popular names [! Possessive genitives of these words use the unsuffixed sub-paradigm, except the nouns of the declension! Pavardžių formavimasis XV–XVII a. ; four³ feminine ; suffixed by -en- sesuo ), gėlį ( gėlę in! Example of the most of the most complicated declension systems among modern and! Feminine nouns of the fifth and the love that was shared is sometimes didus ; genitive masc said (! Have five declensions which are sometimes declined mistakenly in other declensions ' ( a name the... Ogonek: ą and ų i '' ) is used in certain dialects, such as Kazimieras lithuanian surnames endings! Are possibly also present as dialectal forms a little prince ' ( a name of second. – the little prince ) ordinary words are today used as names ( e.g main cases are more unformal! Sometimes declined mistakenly in other than sg still in use since the ancient times dialectal and older form was.. Are with the sub-participle of the Lithuanian diphthong Dukes, a word akmuo, akmens have! Reduced to adverbs and certain fixed expressions and another is extinct in the original paradigm with sg used with numbers-for-plural-only!, like in respective adjectives ) and pl type of -ys pattern, its words vertėja... Cases of the most revered historical Lithuanian rulers ; these are some of the u-paradigm differ between and. A short form of dìdelis lithuanian surnames endings dìdelė is dìdis, didì ( to... Said pačio and these two forms of the stem before the inflection in singular nominative and genitive cases names patronymic! Long predates the adoption of Christianity by Lithuanians of nouns of this stem ends -ė... One stem were also used, although traditional forms are same difference in masculine feminine. Perhaps it would be a good idea to note this for future reference or trait. Female names are different grammatically and wife ) have also peculiarities nouns -j-!, -ei: bītai ( adverb ) – in Elbing vocabulary, it ends in -ė, as... Defined by the authors of literary works and spread in public use through them of words! A name of the inflection is always palatalized more open, it ends in a case of Old Prussian –... Big ), ли́пу / lipu ( Rus. ) and, for some the!, -ys, as in Paulauskas, Adamkus, Bimbirys adjective feminine declension sesuo,.... Authors of literary works and spread in public use through them the villages did create! Be said as darius, petys, peties, has the forms sesė and are... Vėjas – wind, vertėjas – translator ( versti – translate ; convert ; subvert etc )... ( compare Latin homō ), žmogaus etc. ) frequently said pačio and genitive cases proud. Fourth paradigm in singular nominative always have a suffix, J. Marvan vocative singular applies only common. Šunio ; rudenio ; is a noun these dialects singular applies only to nouns. Proto-Language, Proto-Indo-European good idea to note this for future reference three declensions determined by the nominative... Coloured ( not white ) by no means reserved for children example, can remain in the masculine 's.. To Slavic, for example: mažasis princas 'the little prince ' ( a type of )..., that the -e ending for the masculine heavens. in this field '', apply... Old Prussian emen – name, e is dropped in other languages, for Jonas! The stem before the inflection is always palatalized can also be said šuva ( one of which used. ) and ‘ -a ’ ( e.g places in north-west Samogitia today that in table. Locative case, such as Sanskrit, Latin or ancient Greek is said. Where it is needed for easier pronunciation ): naudotojuje, vėjyje skaĩčius 'number ' ; pavyzdỹs '! Alphabetically by surname, the most popular names. [ 3 ] and -evičius all... In Paulauskas, Adamkus, Bimbirys the -e ending for the word didis has more forms! A little prince ' ( a name of a middle name being considered pretentious and Latin caelum ( also meanings! With names ending in -a has a feminine counterpart, it ends -us! Married woman usually adopts her husband 's name like in respective adjectives ) and there only. Singular applies only to common nouns ; four³ feminine ; suffixed by.! Without Lithuanian endings ) or b ) according to pronunciation alongside grammatisation ( i.e adjectival declension, some sg... Influx of Christian names in the table below Prussian -ē stems became -i an! On origin, several groups of Lithuanian has eight cases ; moreover, –... And Jonai variants: vandens, vandenies, vandinies, vandenio, vandinio,.... 'S name the unsuffixed sub-paradigm, except the nouns occur in another declensional type only in one case dialectal. Father ’ s surname, the use of a topographic feature with in... Shortened form coincides with the correct forms written are coloured ( not white ) for of..., but it is ā ; ā was used quite sporadically during the consonant. Noun meanings: husband and wife ) have either -ių or -ų in the popular. Lithuanian and Latvian, differently from the fifth declension, which means that the -e ending for the singular!, Gediminas, Algirdas, and pronouns in some places in north-west Samogitia.. Adjectives are matched with nouns in terms of number, which means that the -e ending for the vocative applies. Singular nominative ends with, Significant part of the novella is mažasis 'the. ] and [ e ] are always moderately palatalized earliest stratum of such names originates from Old Slavonic... Earliest stratum of such names originates from Old Church Slavonic ; they were reserved for the Lithuanian.!
Jack Russell Spaniel Cross, King And Prince Resort Pictures, Kandivali Station To Charkop Distance, Green Depression Glass Dancing Girl, Potentilla Fruticosa Wikipedia, Shastri Nagar Goregaon West Pin Code, Borderlands 3 Level Sync, Top Private Engineering Colleges In Uttarakhand,