Known as a prolific N producer, it has the potential to fix up to 250 lbs N/A if able to overwinter from a fall planting. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Sharing the benefits of how cover crops can improve no-till farming practices through continued research, education, product development and by offering the highest quality seed and seed mixes. Planting methods are the same as those described for legumes. NC State University and NC Woollypod vetch is a cool season annual legume, comparable to many other vetches but with a few of its own unique characteristics. Do note that a cover crop depletes soil moisture during active growth, and it may be difficult to obtain adequate corn stands during dry spring seasons. Early experiments date from the 1940s and show several important benefits of planting winter annual cover crops, chief among them erosion control, addition of nitrogen (N) to the soil for use by a subsequent crop, removal of N from the soil to prevent nutrient loading, buildup of soil organic matter, and buildup of residue that acts as a mulch for water conservation or retention. 1958. At a Wayne County site, the thin crimson clover cover stand on the left was planted late (November 19), whereas the plot on the right was planted as recommended on October 12. When to Grow Crown Vetch?. Woollypod vetch has the potential to grow faster and earlier than hairy vetch. Recent trials have also included lupines, berseem clover, subterranean clover, and other legumes. The extent of soil erosion control provided by cover crops during the fall, winter, and early spring depends largely on when the crop is established (Figure 5). Application Rate: 1 lb/1000 sq ft or 30-40 lb/acre It is essential that cover crop vegetation be thoroughly and uniformly sprayed for effective control. It will do well in soils too acidic for many clovers and alfalfas. This seed is then naturally dispersed and can germinate late in the summer when moisture becomes sufficient. When allowed to overwinter, the extra growth aids in smothering out weed competition and protecting the soil. Drill 15-20 lbs/A hairy vetch seed 1-1.5 inches deep (use higher seeding rate when planning to terminate hairy vetch early in spring). However, situations occur that make weed control very difficult under no-till management. Figure 2. N.C. Timing is particularly important with legumes because late seeding results in small plants with limited root systems. Either Gramoxone Super or Roundup can be used to control existing cover crop vegetation. N.C. Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research harvested with this method is best cleaned by Institute. 129. Legumes grow only a limited amount during fall and winter, which makes them a poor choice for grazing during this period. Hairy vetch can become weedy if left to produce seed. With a small grain cover crop, killing it seven to fourteen days before corn is planted can reduce potential soil water depletion. ft Seed Planting Depth: Broadcasting directly and lightly tamp into soil It can also be used in feed as hay, silage or grazing due to its high crude protein content. Depending on the grass and legume cover crops chosen, a reduction in seeding rate may be appropriate. Cover the seeds with about ½ inch of soil, then water well. Rye cover crop terminated by a roller-crimper prior to planting certified organic soybeans. * Dry matter and N accumulation were significantly reduced if planting was delayed until November following harvest of a maturity group 5 soybean (P<0.05). Harvest the seed as soon as the plants, pods and seeds are dry enough to thresh. Woollypod vetch excretes root exudates that can reduce the growth of small grasses. In some instances, the effectiveness of both Gramoxone and Roundup on actively growing legumes has been enhanced by the addition of 2,4-D amine (1⁄2 to 1 pint per acre) or Banvel (1⁄2 pint per acre tank-mixed). It is possible to broadcast seed at 20-30 lbs/A and use a light disking or field cultivation to improve seed to soil contact. When grown for hay, vetch is generally cut when the first pods are set. The performance of no-till seed-planting equipment has improved considerably, but the system’s seedbed environment requires seeding rates to be 10 to 15 percent higher than those for conventional tillage. Studies have shown some tolerance to glyphosate. With a very low C:N ratio the residue breaks down very quickly and will leave the soil bare throughout much of the growing season. For both hairy vetch and Cahaba white vetch, the rates are 20 to 30 pounds per acre broadcast and 15 to 20 pounds drilled. The erect growth habit of crimson clover may make it slightly easier to manage than hairy vetch, which has a viny nature (Figure 6). 1 = Poor : 5 = Average : 10 = Excellent. However, in a hairy vetch cover crop, increased populations of soybean cyst nematodes have been found. All of these plants have similar heights, so deleterious shading would be at a minimum compared to using taller rye and shorter crimson clover. Cooperative Extension. Be sure to obtain current information about usage regulations and examine a current product label before applying any chemical. Freeze damage has also occurred with Austrian winter pea in higher elevations (above 2,500 feet). Soybeans are never harvested early enough for the seeding of legume cover crops. Best prices on grass seed guaranteed! This alleopathic reaction has been attributed to the release of phytotoxic chemicals from decomposing residue. The use of brand names and any mention or listing of commercial products or services in this publication does not imply endorsement by NC State University or N.C. A&T State University nor discrimination against similar products or services not mentioned. A: Cover crop wheat planted to protect stale seed beds during the winter. Drilling depth can be up to an inch lower, if planted early but if broadcasting is the method used than a shallow incorporation is suggested. Hairy vetch is a winter-hardy cover crop that can grow in areas that undergo a hard freeze. Hairy vetch prefers well-drained soils with a pH of 6.0-7.0, and will do poorly in clay or wet fields. Crown vetch, a perennial, spreads by rhizomes under ground as well as by seed dispersal. of nitrogen per acre to a following spring crop. AG-439-58. Latin Name: Vicia villosa Common Names: Winter Vetch, Fodder Vetch, Sand Vetch Hairy Vetch Hardiness Zones: Perennial to zones 1-7, Annual cover crop Days to Maturity: 80-90 days (longer when left to germinate over winter) Hairy Vetch Seeding Rate: 1-2 lb per 1000 sq. Fields heavily infested with johnsongrass, bermudagrass, or nutsedge should not be planted to cover crops until adequate weed control has been achieved. Growers need to consider timing when planting winter wheat in locations where the Hessian fly may be a problem. Spray solutions for Gramoxone can be water, nitrogen solution, or clear fertilizer solutions and must contain a nonionic surfactant. This thick thatch will slow soil warming and drying and this could cause some issues in a no-till system. Rye is the easiest small grain cover crop to control with Gramoxone. Hairy Vetch (Vicia villosa) is a short term legume commonly used for cover crops in home gardens, weed suppression, erosion control, ground cover, green manure, pasture, silage and hay. Determine small grain lime and fertilizer needs based on soil test results. Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, NC State University. Individuals who use agricultural chemicals are responsible for ensuring that the intended use complies with current regulations and conforms to the product label. Sustainable Agriculture Network. If planted in the spring, weed competition could be an issue and the vetch should be allowed to grow to at least memorial day to justify your investment. — Read our No-Till Farm and Garden Cover Crop Mix Seeds - 1 Lbs - Blend of Gardening Cover Crop Seeds: Hairy Vetch, Daikon Radish, Forage Collards, Triticale, More Visit the Mountain Valley Seed Company Store 4.4 out of 5 stars 384 ratings seed will mature, but care must be taken to insure Smith, F.S., A.D. Falk, and W.R. Ocumpaugh. This species can be grown in areas with annual rain fall ranging as low as 10-16" and has the potential to within some shading when interseeded. Common vetch, Vicia sativa, does not produce as much seed as hairy vetch, posing less of a risk of becoming weedy. If the legume cover crop is established early enough, adequate growth in the fall can help minimize soil erosion. C: Cotton strip-till planted into a wheat cover crop on Augusta fine sandy loam. Seeding rate, depth, and method. Surface residue cools the soil considerably during the spring, with late-summer differences between the cover and bare soil lessening as the corn crop begins to shade the soil. Seeds that have a hard seed coat can lay dormant in the soil for over five years. It grows slowly in the fall, but its roots grow throughout the winter and by spring, hairy vetch quickly grows into twelve-foot long vines. Beltsville, MD: Sustainable Agriculture Network. Several studies comparing conventional and no-till corn in eastern North Carolina have documented the potential contribution of N by legumes. There are many combinations to choose from: using winter wheat or cereal rye; planting flat or on beds; and planting the following crop no-till, strip-till, or conventional till. If carefully managed, hairy vetch may be grown with Bermudagrass. Cooperative Extension is based at North Carolina's two land-grant institutions, Limited research indicates that these soils respond to subsoiling even with the presence of a cover crop mulch. B: Cover crop wheat planted to protect a planned summer vegetable crop. Reseeding usually will not work for crimson clover planted before full-season field corn because crimson clover seed matures after corn planting dates. Use 11⁄2 to 21⁄2 pints of Gramoxone Super per acre or 11⁄2 to 2 quarts of Roundup per acre. Residual weed-control methods for no-till crops planted into a cover crop are similar to those used for conventional planted crops, with the obvious exception of the use of cultivation for weed control. For Austrian winter pea, the rates are 25 to 35 pounds per acre broadcast and 20 to 25 pounds drilled. Crimson clover grows faster in the spring, thereby maturing and obtaining peak dry matter production approximately three to four weeks ahead of hairy vetch. SmartMix is the best cover crop decision making tool in the industry. For this reason, in milder climates it is not as vigorous as other vetches but can still give high yields if allowed to fully mature in late May. The procedures for planting without tillage into a cover crop are similar to planting into residues of a previous crop, such as soybeans or corn. Timely management is required to optimize cover crop and cash crop performance. With an overall rate of 75 kg per acre / 187.5 kg per ha. In conservation tillage systems, the residue from the cover crop is not plowed under after the herbicide treatment and remains on the surface as mulch (Figure 1A). 2012. adequate seed drying procedures are followed to Notice of Release of Hoverson Germplasm deer prevent molding and heating of this mixture. Call to Order: We are encouraging our customers to call us at 800-352-5247 to place your orders.We can then ship your seed directly to you, or you can come pick it up at Albert Lea Seed. Growing Organic Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Garden Seeds. Proper field scouting is important in determining the need for postemergence weed control measures. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment regardless of age, color, disability, family and marital status, gender identity, national origin, political beliefs, race, religion, sex (including pregnancy), sexual orientation and veteran status. Vetches have the ability to offer substantial improvements in soil fertility, structure and organic matter as well as offering a weed and disease break for cereals in a crop rotation. However, do not delay corn planting to allow additional growth of legume cover crops. Figure 3. N.C. Some situations, however, require a different approach. Generally, winter cover crops are planted in early fall and allowed to grow over the winter until early spring, when their growth is terminated by plowing or herbicide treatment. However, it is also less winter hardy than hairy vetch. English photo. Recommendations for the use of agricultural chemicals are included in this publication as a convenience to the reader. In a wet growing season, tilling legumes into the soil may produce slightly greater yields in the crop that follows. Hairy Vetch performs best on well-drained soils and mild soil conditions. When the summer crops are grain sorghum or warm season vegetable crops, planting dates can be more flexible. There are other types of vetch plants, but hairy vetch is most widely used in farming. Winter annual cover crops have been used in rotation with summer crops for many years in North Carolina, but now there are some interesting new applications of this practice. The plant will grow vigorously throughout the winter. Hairy vetch is a winter annual legume and one of the most productive at nitrogen fixation. When planted in the fall it can germinate relatively quickly and will provide a good winter-kill mulch in colder regions. A well-established legume cover potentially can supply 50 to 150 or more pounds of N per acre, or approximately two thirds of the N required by a corn crop and most of what is needed for grain sorghum and some vegetable crops (Table 3 and Table 5). Using a small grain cover crop for silage or hay will greatly delay corn planting and thereby increase the risks of drought, heat stress, and pests associated with late planting. A&T State University, in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Two or more cover crop species can be combined in a single planting to realize the benefits of each. Fertilizer costs vary due to market fluctuations but are generally in the range of $0.35 to $0.70/pound of N ($200 to $400/ton of 30 percent N solution). The forage produced is palatable when green but palatability will greatly increase as it's dried down. Wind erosion can be severe in cultivated organic and sandy soils of this region (Figure 3A). Higher seeding rates and sowing in nutrient deficient fields can aid Woollypod vetch in weed suppression. This surface mulch enhances summer rainfall infiltration, reduces soil water evaporation, and provides weed control by early shading. by Eric Sideman, Ph.D. Drilling into a conventional seedbed is the most reliable way to obtain a uniform stand; however, a no-till grain drill also can be used successfully, provided that residue from the previous crop is not excessive and soil moisture is sufficient to allow the drill to penetrate to the desired planting depth. The legumes best adapted to North Carolina soil and climatic conditions are crimson clover, hairy vetch, Austrian winter pea, and Cahaba white vetch. One exception is on coastal plain soils that are responsive to in-row subsoiling. FARM SEED SALES & PICK UP. Mix with cereal rye for increased weed suppression and increased winter survival of hairy vetch; Soil health benefits: source of nitrogen, increases weed control; Slow-growing cover crop so seed early for best growth; Not a good option for grazing. If a legume cover crop contributes 100 pounds of N/ acre, the legumes would cost the equivalent of a typical inorganic N fertilizer (30% N as UAN solution) priced at $275 to $450/ton for crimson clover and hairy vetch, respectively (Figure 9). Table 6. Harvesting: 1. Ideal seeding depth: ½–1½". Planting about a quarter of your garden to cover crops each year can add fertility, reduce erosion, help break pest cycles, and much more. If legumes are used, an early burndown is likely to reduce the amount of legume N available to the next crop. What puts vetch in the weed category is that the hairy vetch, an annual, drops its seed early and once established it’s very difficult to eradicate. Woollypod vetch excretes root exudates that can reduce the … This earlier seed set provides a good food source for some game birds and flowering to attract beneficals. Subterranean clover is a warm-weather winter cover crop, and it will typically complete … A wide range of planting dates exists for most legumes (Table 1), although early plantings obtain the best results. All these potential benefits are highly dependent on weather and management factors that should be considered when using cover crops. This species is really known for its climbing ability, even more so than common vetch. Even if economic factors do not favor the use of legume cover crops to supply N, farmers may be interested in building organic matter, enhancing available soil moisture, and benefiting the complex ecosystem effects that are often associated with legume and grass cover crops. Leaving the cover crop on the surface also reduces its decomposition rate compared to plowing. A newly developed alternative for certified organic farms that provides similar residue conservation without herbicides involves cover crop termination using a roller-crimper (Figure 1B). Surface residue (from a cover crop or previous crop) helps conserve soil moisture during the spring/summer growing season by reducing water evaporation from the soil surface before the protective full crop canopy has been established. The use of a starter fertilizer will ensure faster initial growth. Aerial overseeding into cotton at defoliation or into soybean prior to leaf drop has been successful in some cases (Figure 7). May have some allelopathic properties, so it is best to allow 2-3 weeks between incorporating and seeding of small-seeded crops. In addition, the potential for conserving soil moisture may be reduced if the cover crop is removed for silage, leaving less mulch and reducing the following corn yield (Figure 8). The nonlegumes rye and triticale provide maximum erosion protection during fall and winter because of their rapid growth rates. On coastal plain soils, supplemental N (25–35 pounds per acre) may be needed to obtain adequate top growth. In Figure 2, maximum yield was attained with both 104 lb fertilizer N/acre and with 54 lb fertilizer N/acre plus vetch; thus, vetch appears to supply the equivalent of 50 lb N/acre. This slight yield advantage is more than offset, however, if the legume residue is left on the surface to increase infiltration of water and conserve soil moisture when dry growing conditions prevail. This vetch has been observed to produce more biomass than many other vetches and fixation of N could even start within a week of emergence. Hairy Vetch is best grown with plants like cereal rye that enable the hairy vetch to climb up the cereal rye to allow air movement across the soil surface. With the early harvest and the open fall this year, there is enough time for a cover crop to be seeded and to have adequate growth to provide some benefits. It has very high feed values for animals as green plants and dry matter as well as grain. By combining grass and legume cover crops, farmers also can gain the benefits of nitrogen scavenging, high biomass production to build organic matter, biological nitrogen fixation, and moderated nutrient release, compared to a legume-only cover crop. For corn and cotton, the generally lower soil temperature under the cover crop makes it imperative to select a hybrid that demonstrates excellent germination and seedling vigor under cool, wet conditions (Figure 10). An example of crimson clover and hairy vetch cover crops. This publication printed on: Jan. 18, 2021, Skip to Managing the Cover Crop and a Summer Crop, Skip to Summer Crop Establishment With No-Till Planting, NC Figure 10. For pasture: A field of fall-seeded rye and vetch can be pastured from early May through June, then plowed and sown... 3. In contrast to legumes, grass cover crops can immobilize soil nitrogen as they decompose. Growth correlates with growing degree days (units of average daily temperature compared to a base at which no growth takes place) which are calculated for hairy vetch using a base temperature of 4° C (39.2° F). Figure 6. In strip tillage systems or with banded herbicide applications, a crimson clover cover crop can be managed so that a proportion of the stand is allowed to continue growing and produce viable seed. High pressure (40 to 45 pounds per square inch) will help the spray penetrate dense vegetation. The following general cultural practices are applicable to all legume cover crops: Planting dates. Although crimson clover, hairy vetch, Austrian winter pea, and common vetch are widely adapted to soil and climatic conditions in North Carolina, they do have some limitations. Seed pea vetch. Winter Cover Crops: Their Effects on Corn Yields and Soil Properties. Hairy vetch is not a crop that would planted as a monoculture if your goal is to build organic matter. Remember, though, that late seeding dates may sacrifice some soil erosion protection. Technical Bulletin no. Hairy Vetch is a viney, cool season legume best used in a crop rotation for erosion control or as a cover crop. Careful management can prevent this problem. Woollypod vetch has the potential to grow faster and earlier than hairy vetch. A. Kranz. A: Aerial overseeding prior to soybean leaf drop in Pamlico County. With careful management, this system can work for full-season no-till corn if strips of crimson clover are allowed to mature, produce, and disperse seed (as discussed in the “Legume N Economics” section, below). Effect of cover crop and N rate on corn grain yield (2-year average). The oat seed is readily graded out of sample and the oat plant provides a framework for the twining, usually prostrate, vetch. This extra surface residue accumulation can benefit subsequent crops, but it should be evaluated to determine whether it inhibits crop growth or encourages pests or diseases. If grown as a seed crop, hairy vetch is harvested when the lower pods are ripe to avoid shattering. Ideal Sowing Time Hairy vetch tends to be more winter hardy than the others and generally can be planted later. Winter annual cover crops can be either legumes or cereals. Hairy Vetch does an excellent job in soil tilth in the top few inches in the soil, often creating the illusion of planting in a cloud due to the soil’s looseness. Another example would be the use of wheat, triticale, or barley with crimson clover. For assistance, contact your local N.C. Hairy vetch is a hardy type of vetch suited to wetter soil and colder winters than other winter-active legumes. Figure 7. Seed corn insects can be abundant in cover crops used as no-till mulch. Woollypod vetch can be easily grown if planted into a moist soil, in the early fall. Producers that can achieve high productivity levels may be able to reduce N costs by using legumes. Killing the cover crop about 10 days before planting no-till sorghum or vegetables can minimize soil water depletion. Results of N response test for corn yields, Tyrrell County, 2007. They then harvest the forage for hay or silage. Seedlings are especially vulnerable to damage from sandblasting during cool, dry springs, when growth rates are slow. Using no-till planting and cover residue can increase the reservoir of available soil water and can substantially increase corn yields in droughty years. Estimated costs associated with a legume cover crop include seed ($55/acre for hairy vetch at 25 pounds per acre), inoculation ($2/acre), planting ($8/acre), and burndown herbicide ($10/acre), for a total of $75/acre. Crop rotation and timely nematode sampling are wise management practices. Addition of a residual herbicide to the burndown herbicide also improves cover crop kill. 1990. Broadcast the seed over the soil at the rate recommended on the seed package – usually 1 to 2 pounds of seed for every 1,000 square feet of garden space. North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual. Figure 9. Receive Email Notifications for New Publications. One or more residual herbicides are usually applied at the same time as the knockdown herbicide. In contrast, the presence of a cover crop, particularly rye, has had a beneficial effect on weed control by suppressing germination of many large-seeded broadleaf weeds. Simply mow or cut plants in late spring or early summer before flowers mature. Sorghum Sudan (Sweet Six Dry Stalk BMR) - Hybrid. It has been reported to grow … Seed crimson clover at 20 to 25 pounds per acre broadcast and 15 to 20 pounds drilled. One solution is to consider planting fields with legume cover crops last and to monitor early spring conditions to minimize moisture depletion before corn-planting time. 4. Figure 1A. An innovative system that has shown promise in other southeastern states is to allow crimson clover to reseed itself naturally. Get ratings for species suitability based on goals, planting dates, geographic location C:N ratio, nitrogen fixation, grazing suitability, frost tolerance and more. Some producers may find the late maturity of WinterKing reduces the potential for undesired seed propagation found in earlier maturing cover crop varieties. If planted to late when soils start to cool off than overall germination and results will be unfavorable. Strip-plantings of cereal rye can also be used as windbreaks to protect vegetable crops and tobacco from wind erosion (Figure 4). Woollypod vetch can be more sensitive to cold weather fluctuations than some other vetches. Nevertheless, few if any, large commercial farmers have adopted legume cover crops to supply N, probably because of cost (see next section) and management reasons. Planting Depth: 0.5-1.5 inches Seeding rates are 1 to 11⁄2 bushels per acre for rye, triticale, and wheat and 2 bushels per acre for oats. 2. This allows establishment of the cover crop after a late-fall-harvested crop such as soybeans. 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