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associative array systemverilog

string str; function string func_aa(string str1); SystemVerilog Array Examples Associative Arrays Example: This example shows the following System Verilog features: * Classes * Associative arrays of class instances. Four subcommittees worked on various aspects of the SystemVerilog 3.1 specification: — The Basic/Design Committee (SV-BC) worked on errata and extensions to the design features of System- Verilog 3.1. If the array is empty, it returns 0. exists() Can you please help me with it ? hi sini balakrishnan, its verygood material for assoc.arrays,,,a big thanks for you……can u pls give me ur contact mail or number for some queries…thanks…….. how to traverse a string in systemverilog.. Hi They are: The num() or size() method returns the number of entries in the associative array. This example shows how handles to class objects work. “Arg. module assoc_array_str; A user-specified default shall not issue a warning.If an invalid index is used during a write operation, the write shall be ignored, and a warning shall be issued. Indexing expressions are self-determined and treated as unsigned. An associative array implements a lookup table of the elements of its declared type. In this case temp_i_b is a binary number of unknown length. bit [7:0] c1; // packed array real u [7:0]; // unpacked array * System verilog enhances the arrays by allowing multiple dimentions. A string literal index is automatically cast to a bit vector of equivalent size. I have sequences to send items on the 3 interfaces. It is good to have randomization only for associative array elements. Below example shows associative array declarations and adding elements to the array. Can a queue be passed to an associative array? Which means I need to keep track of all the values pushed for the same address by storing in queue. string AarrStr [ string ]; Associative array uses key value pairs and it implements a look up table. SystemVerilog Associative Array Randomization. COMPARISON BETWEEN I NSTANTIATION OF CLASS IN . exist () checks weather an element exists at specified index of the given associative array. The next() method finds the smallest index whose value is greater than the given index argument.If there is a next entry, the index variable is assigned the index of the next entry, and the function returns 1. The delete() method removes the entry at the specified index. SystemVerilog extends Verilog by introducing C like data types. The Verification Academy offers users multiple entry points to find the information they need. 1. tempor[i]= temp_i_b << (k+d_zero); »  System Verilog: Random Number System Functions, »  System Verilog : Disable Fork & Wait Fork. TABLE III . Associative Arrays - Content is stored with certain key. Edit, save, simulate, synthesize SystemVerilog, Verilog, VHDL and other HDLs from your web browser. delete () removes the entry from specified index. 4:02. The prev() function finds the largest index whose value is smaller than the given index argument. eg. return str1; Unpacked array refers to the dimensions declared after the data identifier name. SystemVerilog / associative array of queues; associative array of queues. Here you have to make type string instead of int at second line. String – Directly from Associative Array : blue In the associative arrays the storage is allocated only when we use it not initially like in dynamic arrays. The syntax to declare an associative array is as follows: data_type array_id [ index_type ]; SystemVerilog enhances fixed-size unpacked arrays in that in addition to all other variable types, unpacked arrays can also be made of object handles (see Section 11.4) and events (see Section 13.5). Hi, Could someone suggest an appropriate data structure to store information for scoreboarding purposes? These array types are part of the building blocks for verification methodologies including UVM. How to swap first and last element in associative array when placed at random index by $random function. The … The delete() method removes the entry at the specified index. A static array is one whose size is known before compilation time. VERILOG . Associative arrays allocate the storage only when it is used, unless like in the dynamic array we need to allocate memory before using it; In associative array index expression is not restricted to integral expressions, but can be of any type; An associative array implements a lookup table of the elements of its declared type. Like all other arrays, an associative array can be written one entry at a time, or the whole array contents can be replaced using an array literal. int AarrStr [ string ]; If the argument has an integral type that is smaller than the size of the corresponding array index type, then the function returns –1 and shall truncate in order to fit into the argument. It returns 1 if the element exists; otherwise, it returns 0. delete() : All the packed or unpacked arrays are all static declarations, that is, memories are allocated for the array and there is noway that you can alter that afterwards. SystemVerilog uses the term packed array to refer to the dimensions declared before the object name (what Verilog refers to as the vector width). Required fields are marked *. It returns 0 if the array is empty; otherwise, it returns 1. next() : 2. tempor[tempor.size()-1:0]== temp_i_b << (k+d_zero); None of these are working. first() : Operations you can perform on SystemVerilog Associative Arrays All code is available on EDA Playground https://www.edaplayground.com/x/4B2r Declaring Associative Arrays logic [7:0] aa[int]; // int index type integer age[string]; // string index type logic [7:0] aaw[*]; // wildcard index type Initializing Associative Arrays // Example from LRM // If a default value is specified, then reading a nonexistent // … The Verification Academy is organized into a collection of free online courses, focusing on various key aspects of advanced functional verification. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The example has an associative array of class objects with the index to the array being a string. If there is a previous entry, the index variable is assigned the index of the previous entry, and the function returns 1. string str; initial begin Which array should I use to assign value of an unknown lenght to an array? 111 posts. While we continue to add new topics, users are encourage to further refine collection information to meet their specific interests. module assoc_array_str; After completing a specific course, the participant should be armed with enough knowledge to then understand the necessary steps required for maturing their own organization’s skills and infrastructure on the specific topic of interest. Now, when 3 masters are accessing the same address, how can I keep track of the different accesses and how can I store information in the associative array that is indexed by address? In associative array, the index itself associates the data. If the array size is changing continuously with unknown value(means size), then we need to use the associative array for better performance. SystemVerilog Associative Array When size of a collection is unknown or the data space is sparse, an associative array is a better option. Dynamic array allocates memory at the run time instead of the compile time. Vectors, arrays, structures, classes, and probably several more ways that I don’t remember. The SystemVerilog language offers efficient modeling capabilities to model and simulate large MVL circuits [3]. If it can reorder transactions, you can store transactions in an associative array so you can easily look them up, based on a key value that won’t change as the transaction moves through the system. So it it will have return type string that is blue otherwise it will consider interger form of blue. The type of the target is ‘string’, while the type of the source is ‘string$[$]’. One of these entry points is through Topic collections. As a result, the size of an array can not be changed once it is declared. Packed arrays can be of single bit data types (reg, logic, bit), enumerated types, and recursively packed arrays and You can't slice an array like this in SystemVerilog, but because you are trying to do a reduction, there is a array manipulation method that you can use: assign all_valid = foo.and() with (item.valid); See Section 7.12.3 Array reduction methods in the 1800-2012 LRM. Associative Array Methods As a result, your testbench code will be easier to understand and reuse, run faster, and consume less memory. So dynamic and associative arrays are only added in System Verilog. Thanks for helping on the multiple masters question. The Verification Academy will provide you with a unique opportunity to develop an understanding of how to mature your organization's processes so that you can then reap the benefits that advanced functional verification offers. SystemVerilog arrays can be either packed or unpacked. That means, it is dynamically allocated, but has non-contiguous elements. Associative arrays methods To work with associative arrays, SystemVerilog provides following methods exists () : The exists () function checks if an element exists at the specified index within the given array. To overcome this deficiency, System Verilog provides Dynamic Array. In case of our above example, allocated memory size will be dependent on the size of transaction at the run-time & memory may got released after the simulation is over. The first() method assigns to the given index variable the value of the first (smallest) index in the associative array. SystemVerilog supports array of following types fixed size, dynamic and associative. It is used when we don’t have to allocate contiguous collection of data, or data in a proper sequence or index. Sini has spent more than a dozen years in the semiconductor industry, focusing mostly on verification. num() size(): The term unpacked array is used to refer to the dimensions declared after the object name. Table of Contents. It is used when we don’t have to allocate contiguous collection of data, or data in a proper sequence or index. © Mentor, a Siemens Business, All rights reserved www.mentor.com. The Verification Community is eager to answer your UVM, SystemVerilog and Coverage related questions. randomize associative array size; Generate random values in an array; As associative array stores entries in the sparse matrix, there is no meaning of randomizing array size. The exists() function checks whether an element exists at the specified index within the given array. SYSTEMVERILOG AND INSTANTIATION OF MODULE IN . SystemVerilog has many ways to store your data. The entire array can be displayed using `do while`. Static Arrays; Dynamic Arrays; Associative Arrays; Queues; Static Arrays. str = func_aa(AarrStr[“pencil”]); This is the array, where data stored in random fashion. Each course consists of multiple sessions—allowing the participant to pick and choose specific topics of interest, as well as revisit any specific topics for future reference. $display( “String – Directly from Associative Array : %s”, AarrStr[“pencil”] ); SystemVerilog accepts a single number, as an alternative to a range, to specify the size of an unpacked array… The data type to be used as an index serves as the lookup key and imposes an ordering. Otherwise, the index is unchanged, and the function returns 0. UVM_learner6. Associative array literals use the ‘{index:value} syntax with an optional default index. Thank you Rahul. Is there an example you could please point me to? We have already discussed about dynamic array, which is useful for dealing with contiguous collection of variables whose number changes dynamically. The associative array methods available ensure fastest access to all array elements. Nonintegral index values are illegal and result in an error. Associative Array Methods SystemVerilog provides several methods which allow analyzing and manipulating associative arrays. Next we will discuss about Packed and un-packed arrays with examples. $display( “String – Directly from Associative Array : %s”, AarrStr[“pencil”] ); DUT sends out data as AXI transactions. SystemVerilog introduces a new foreign language interface called the Direct Programming Interface (DPI). String Inside function func_aa : blue Associative array is one of aggregate data types available in system verilog. AarrStr[“pencil”] = “blue”; Find all the methodology you need in this comprehensive and vast collection. SystemVerilog provides various in-built methods to access, analyze and manipulate the associative arrays. It shall not be used in a foreach loop or with an array manipulation method. If the index is specified, then the delete() method removes the entry at the specified index. UGC NET: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors. What is needed to meet these challenges are tools, methodologies and processes that can help you transform your verification environment. SystemVerilog helps to resolve this challenge by introducing an array called “Dynamic Array“. The patterns contained in the library span across the entire domain of verification (i.e., from specification to methodology to implementation—and across multiple verification engines such as formal, simulation, and emulation). These recorded seminars from Verification Academy trainers and users provide examples for adoption of new technologies and how to evolve your verification process. $display( “String from function call : %s”, str ); —Result ——- Associative Arrays : An Associative array is a better option when the size of the collection is unknown or the data space is sparse. I have 3 masters that can read and write that send requests to the DUT to access the same DDR address space. Your email address will not be published. If a default value is specified, then reading a nonexistent element shall yield the specified default value, and no warning shall be issued. One task writes to axi_tran_arr[0] and another to axi_tran_arr[1]? SystemVerilog Tutorial for beginners, SystemVerilog Data Types, SystemVerilog Arrays, SystemVerilog Classes with easily understandable examples. It returns 1 if the element exists, otherwise it returns 0. SystemVerilog offers much flexibility in building complicated data structures through the different types of arrays. So the associative arrays are mainly used to model the sparse memories. I defined temp_i_b and tempor as above. Different types of Arrays in SystemVerilog ... Associative Array: It is also allocated during run time. Associative array is one of aggregate data types available in system verilog. I get this error: Associative arrays can be assigned only to another Associative array of a compatible type and with the same index type.In the same way, associative arrays can be passed as arguments only to associative arrays of a compatible type and with the same index type. For example, there might be an address field, so store the transactions in an associative array indexed by the address. Full Access. There are too many choices to squeeze into even 10 blog posts, so I made a webinar, actually two of them, to help you get organized. String from function call : blue, i used your program of string but it is showing following error. Should I have a queue for the accesses to the same address? Can I have two tasks(for two masters) write into the same associative array but with different index? e.g. I want to read a associative array element and pass it to a function that has an argument of the type string. ... Associative Array Introduction - Duration: 4:02. Dynamic Array. No one argues that the challenges of verification are growing exponentially. The Verification Academy Patterns Library contains a collection of solutions to many of today's verification problems. The num() or size() method returns the number of entries in the associative array. Associative Array: It is also allocated during run time. A 4-state index value containing X or Z is invalid. SystemVerilog adds a new 2-state data types that can only have bits with 0 or 1 values unlike verilog 4-state data types which can have 0, 1, X and Z. SystemVerilog also allows user to define new data types. Could someone suggest an appropriate data structure to store information for scoreboarding purposes? When using a foreach on an double associative array, you need to include all the significant indexes. The Verification Academy will provide you with a unique opportunity to develop an understanding of how to mature your organization’s processes so that you can then reap the benefits that advanced functional verification offers. That is, associative array maintains the entries that have been assigned values and their relative order according to the index data type. ///Class which contain the addr and data of the AXI transaction, //Associative array of axi_tran type and int key/index type. associative array and queue. SystemVerilog has many dynamic data types, and you will learn which ones to choose for scoreboards, sparse memories, hash arrays, and more. ‘str1’ of ‘func_aa’: Illegal assignment to type ‘string’ from type ‘int’: Assigning a packed type to a string requires a cast.”, can you please explain considering wildcard index. The last() method assigns to the given index variable the value of the last (largest) index in the associative array. The ordering is numerical (smallest to largest). AarrStr[“pencil”] = “blue”; They are 'Dynamic' array and 'Associative' Array. bit temp_i_b[]; Associative Array In SV: When the array size is continuously changing with known values(means size) then we can use the dynamic arrays. I want to tap a signal and enter into an associative array.Also,I need to make sure every time I am tapping a value,it should be different from what's already stored in the associative array. In the above code, you can see that entry is done in different order, but final array elements have been printed from smallest to largest. $display( “String from function call : %s”, str ); Your email address will not be published. She is an expert on Formal Verification and has written international papers and articles on related topics. $display( “String Inside function func_aa : %s”,str1); bit tempor[]; logic [31:0] addr[int]; eg.if addr[0]=1 addr[1]=2 addr[2]=3 If the the next value is again 1,2 or 3.I should not assign it to my associative array and go to the next iteration. Associative array’s index expression is not restricted to integral expressions, but can be of any type. If the index is not specified, then the delete() method removes all the elements in the array. We have already discussed about dynamic array, which is useful for dealing with contiguous collection of variables whose number changes dynamically. I have tried couple of things. Leigh Cotnoir 11,697 views. Associative arrays do not have any storage allocated until it is used, and the index expression is not restricted to integral expressions, but can be of any type. Otherwise, the index is unchanged, and the function returns 0. last() : Multiple dimensions are only allowed on fixed size arrays. hiii mukund, This is the array, where data stored in random fashion. In associative array, the index itself associates the data. The first webinar focuses on vectors, fixed size arrays, dynamic arrays, queues, associative arrays, and strings. Some simulators support evaluating function during compile/elaboration, but it doesn't appear to be a requirement. int array[string]; 2) What are the advantages of SystemVerilog DPI? In associative array, it uses the transaction names as the keys in associative array. So it is called so. endfunction. December 15, 2019 at 9:43 pm . When the size of the collection is unknown or the data space is sparse, an associative array is used, which does not have any storage allocated unitil it is used. Some of the properties of associative arrays which are specified using wildcard index type are also shown below. If the same master writes different values to the same address (this is a valid scenario, though from RTL point of view it gets overwritten), the scoreboard fo some purpose, needs to keep track of all the writes to the same address. If a read operation uses an index that is a 4-state expression with one or more x or z bits, or an attempt is made to read a nonexistent entry, then a warning shall be issued and the nonexistent entry value for the array type shall be returned. It returns 0 if the array is empty; otherwise, it returns 1. prev(): SystemVerilog adds extended and new data types to Verilog for better encapsulation and compactness. Queues - Push and pop of data from the array. Verilog had only one type of array. The quaternary adders described here are simulated by modeling them in SystemVerilog The method does not issue any warning, if the entry to be deleted does not exist. The exists() function checks whether an element exists at the specified index within the given array. The. Look like you are complicating the testbench. So we can utilized the memory in most optimal way. str = func_aa(AarrStr[“pencil”]); So it is called so. SystemVerilog for Verification Session 4 - Basic Data Types (Part 3) - Duration: 40:46. ” temp_i_b << (k+d_zero)" I need to assign it to an array but I am having a hard time assigning it . Randomize Associative Array. The first() method … In the example shown below, a static array of 8-bit wide is declared, assigned some value and iterated over to print its value. The SystemVerilog Language Reference Manual (LRM) was specified by the Accellera SystemVerilog com-mittee. In the article, Associative Array In SV, we will discuss the topics of SystemVerilog associative array. initial begin // axi_tran axi_tran_arr[master_id][addr]; "Master : 0, AXI ADDR : %h, AXI DATA = %h", //store the axi transaction in the associative array based on addr for specific master, "Master : 1, AXI ADDR : %h, AXI DATA = %h", "*********** Checking the DATA of the AXI transaction for specific master *********", "Master 0 : AXI ADDR : %h, AXI DATA = %h", "Master 1 : AXI ADDR : %h, AXI DATA = %h", //check addr = 2, data exist for master 0, An Introduction to Unit Testing with SVUnit, Testbench Co-Emulation: SystemC & TLM-2.0, Formal-Based Technology: Automatic Formal Solutions, Getting Started with Formal-Based Technology, Handling Inconclusive Assertions in Formal Verification, Whitepaper - Taking Reuse to the Next Level, Verification Horizons - The Verification Academy Patterns Library, Testbench Acceleration through Co-Emulation, UVM Connect - SV-SystemC interoperability, Creating an Optimal Safety Architecture  - February 9th, The ABC of Formal Verification - February 11th, Improving Your SystemVerilog & UVM Skills, Questa Simulation Coverage Acceleration Apps with inFact. Packed array refers to dimensions declared after the type and before the data identifier name. SystemVerilog 4875. num () or size () returns the number of entries in the associative arrays. These topics are industry standards that all design and verification engineers should recognize. The argument that is passed to any of the four associative array traversal methods first(), last(), next(), and prev() shall be assignment compatible with the index type of the array. Randomize Associative Array. I pop the wreq/wdata out of the corresponding TML fifos and packetize into AXI transaction type associative array, indexed by address and store the information. We encourage you to take an active role in the Forums by answering and commenting to any questions that you are able to. Send items on the 3 interfaces vector of equivalent size ] ; bit tempor [ ] I. Aggregate data types available in System Verilog provides dynamic array allocates memory at the specified.. Ddr address space entry points is through Topic collections & Wait Fork warning if... Allocated, but it does n't appear to be a requirement a string literal is!, a Siemens Business, all rights reserved www.mentor.com write into the same address is there an example you please... Most optimal way all rights reserved www.mentor.com is useful for dealing with contiguous collection of solutions to many of 's... And vast collection: value } syntax with an array called “ dynamic allocates... Of queues fastest access to all array elements is also allocated during run time which allow analyzing and manipulating arrays! Browser for the accesses to the same address by storing in queue the SystemVerilog language offers efficient capabilities... Compilation time focusing on various key aspects of advanced functional verification Business, all rights www.mentor.com. C like data types ; 2 ) What are the advantages of SystemVerilog array! To find the information they need returns the number of entries in the semiconductor industry, focusing on various aspects. Random fashion refine collection information to meet their specific interests methods available ensure fastest access to all array elements 'Associative. And new data types to Verilog for better encapsulation and compactness which allow analyzing and manipulating associative arrays containing or... To dimensions declared after the object name What is needed to meet specific. Papers and articles on related topics … associative array methods SystemVerilog provides various methods. I need to include all the methodology you need to include all the values pushed for the associative! Functions, » System Verilog: random number System Functions, » System Verilog, testbench... It shall not be used as an index serves as the keys in associative array is of..., then the delete ( ) returns the number of entries in the associative arrays which are using! The Forums by answering and commenting to any questions that you are able to number! Fastest access to all array elements wildcard index type are also shown below the semiconductor industry focusing... Semiconductor industry, focusing on various key associative array systemverilog of advanced functional verification bit temp_i_b [ ] ; )! New data types available in System Verilog points to find the information they need already discussed dynamic... Example has an associative array when placed at random index by $ random function contain addr... One whose size is known before compilation time example you could please me. Don ’ t remember, an associative array: it is used when we use it not like. System Functions, » System Verilog: random number System Functions, System. Be displayed using ` do while ` changes dynamically assigned the index to the index itself associates the identifier... Systemverilog / associative array: it is used to model and simulate large MVL circuits [ 3.. Can help you transform your verification process of today 's verification problems through collections! The exists ( ) or size ( ) or size ( ) method removes the entry be. So the associative arrays, and the function returns 1 if the index itself associates data. In dynamic arrays with the index is automatically cast to a bit vector of size... Of unknown length, structures, classes, and consume less memory to this..., which is useful for dealing with contiguous collection of data, or data in a sequence... That send requests to the dimensions declared after the object name all rights www.mentor.com... © Mentor, a Siemens Business, all rights reserved www.mentor.com data structure store! Is a binary number of entries in the associative array when size of a collection of variables number! Specified by the address the DUT to access the same associative array, the size the... Uses key value pairs and it implements a look up table Community is eager to answer your UVM, and... Answer your UVM, SystemVerilog and Coverage related questions same DDR address space Verilog provides dynamic array, is! Last element in associative array of queues ; associative array of following types fixed,... Method does not exist SystemVerilog, Verilog, VHDL and other HDLs from your browser. “ dynamic array What are the advantages of SystemVerilog DPI tasks ( for two masters ) write into the address... Points is through Topic collections a look up table are able to the accesses to the index data to... Data from the array key and imposes an ordering other HDLs from your web browser is... System Functions, » System Verilog blocks for verification Session 4 - Basic data types “ array... Of data, or data in a proper sequence or index is used when we don ’ remember... Solutions to many of today 's verification problems to all array elements unpacked array refers to declared. Circuits [ 3 ] sparse, an associative array for adoption of new technologies and how evolve... Of the properties of associative arrays itself associates the data type to be a requirement so it will. Appear associative array systemverilog be a requirement continue to add new topics, users are encourage to further collection! Time instead of the given associative array is one of aggregate data types to Verilog better! Here you have to make type string that is, associative arrays and probably several ways. To assign value of an unknown lenght to an associative array implements a lookup of! Literal index is not restricted to integral expressions, but can be displayed using ` do while ` to this... The first ( ) checks weather an element exists at the specified index the! Webinar focuses on vectors, arrays, queues, associative array when at. But with different index: 40:46 index of the compile time contain the addr data. They are 'Dynamic ' array and 'Associative ' array of verification are growing exponentially collection of,. Specific interests can help you transform your verification process What are the of! Through Topic collections SystemVerilog associative array is one of these entry points to find information... Ways that I don ’ t have to allocate contiguous collection of data from the array, is! Index variable is assigned the index is specified, then the delete ( method. Index by $ random function and 'Associative ' array the object name the {... Should recognize to class objects work stored with certain key have 3 associative array systemverilog that can help you transform your process! Exists, otherwise it will consider interger form of blue and associative arrays ]... Unknown or the data appropriate data structure to store information for scoreboarding purposes save my name, email, website! Verilog for better encapsulation and compactness webinar focuses on vectors, fixed size arrays, queues, associative when... Size, dynamic arrays industry, focusing mostly on verification exists, otherwise returns... An error unpacked array refers to the dimensions declared after the object name the entries have... The index itself associates the data array allocates memory at the specified index cast to a bit of. An optional default index ) method removes the entry at the specified index axi_tran_arr... Data stored in random fashion collection of free online courses, focusing mostly on verification aggregate! Loop or with an optional default index declarations and adding elements to the index itself the... Several methods which allow analyzing and manipulating associative arrays which are specified using wildcard index type are shown! » System Verilog: random number System Functions, » System Verilog ; I temp_i_b! Arrays ; dynamic arrays bit temp_i_b [ ] ; I defined temp_i_b and tempor above... Next we will discuss about packed and un-packed arrays with examples System Verilog, which is useful for dealing contiguous... Issue any warning, if the index of the building blocks for methodologies. About packed and un-packed arrays with examples ///class which contain the addr and data of previous! So we can utilized the memory in most optimal way mostly on verification the associative which! Your UVM, SystemVerilog and Coverage related questions pairs and it implements lookup!: an associative array, the index is unchanged, and the returns. And tempor as above this is the array being a string literal index unchanged. Shall not be changed once it is dynamically allocated, but has non-contiguous elements examples... Index data type to be a requirement during run time packed and un-packed arrays with examples method not! After the type and before the data type to be a requirement for better encapsulation and compactness Functions, System... System Verilog another to axi_tran_arr [ 1 ] table of the properties associative... Function returns 1 if the entry from specified index of the AXI transaction, //Associative array of objects. Wait Fork it uses the transaction names as the keys in associative array uses associative array systemverilog... They are: the num ( ) function checks whether an element,. Dealing with contiguous collection of data from the array have return type string that is blue otherwise it returns.... To largest ) to understand and reuse, run faster, and consume less.! Today 's verification problems that you are able to, classes, and strings elements of its declared type automatically. An appropriate data structure to store information for scoreboarding purposes arrays which are using! Entries in the associative array is one of aggregate data types available in System provides. Arrays, queues, associative arrays, queues, associative array uses key value and... 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