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traditional bengali house architecture

Bengali architecture includes ancient urban architecture, religious architecture, rural vernacular architecture, colonial townhouses and country houses and modern urban styles. Indian lifestyle and fashion Indian bengali jmindar er kuthi very old ancien house on thye way to jamindar house boro giant singho duar gate. The main construction material used in modern time is corrugated steel sheets. Traditional. The only thing luxurious about these homes is the ‘Kachari Ghor’, which serves a purpose similar to that of a living room. Tinwork is an ancient practice, and tin artistry skills have been passed down from generation to generation. Like the mud houses, the people here are plain and honest. They live in these tiny huts, singing folk music with smiles on their faces. Most temples surviving in reasonable condition date from about the 17th century onwards, after temple building revived; it had stopped after the Muslim conquest in the 13th century. The archaeological sites of Mahasthangarh, Paharpur, Wari-Bateshwar ruins, Chandraketugarh and Mainamati provide evidence of a highly organized urban civilization in the region. See more ideas about turkish architecture, traditional house, house styles. The oldest surviving mosque was built during the Delhi Sultanate. The Hindu Sena dynasty only ruled for a century before the conquest. [24] Such houses were traditionally small, only one storey and detached, and had a wide veranda were adapted by the British, who used them as houses for colonial administrators in summer retreats in the Himalayas and in compounds outside Indian cities. In the rural areas of Bangladesh, it is often called “Bangla Ghar” (Bengali Style House). However, the real character of machiya housing lies in traditional elements, like the ambience only mature wooden houses can emanate, and the tsuboniwa miniscule garden, which conveys changing seasons and the fresh smell of well-trimmed trees and plants. Most machiya houses today are equipped with modern amenities, including a full range of kitchen equipment. Gerostho Baris have a, A look back at the History: 4 Oldest temples of Bangladesh, A Look At Dhaka’s Beautiful Amphitheaters. Enter your name and email address below to subscribe to myBproperty newsletter. [20], The Naulakha Pavilion at the Lahore Fort in Pakistan displays the distinct Bengali Do-chala style roof. Many renowned global architects worked in the region during the 1960s, including Louis Kahn, Richard Neutra, Stanley Tigerman, Paul Rudolph, Robert Boughey and Konstantinos Doxiadis. Dhaka and Murshidabad were the hubs of Mughal architecture. Remember Asmani? This was part of the second wave of urban civilization in the Indian subcontinent, following the decline of the Indus Valley Civilization. They are well matched and adapted to the climates and cultures by using local building materials and techniques. [9], The Bengal Sultanate (1352–1576) normally used brick as the primary construction material, as pre-Islamic buildings had done. The traditional style of housing was somehow considered to be alike with the tudor house plan styled architecture. 29. When you think of a traditional Bengali village house, the first thing that comes to mind is a mud house. Jul 5, 2020 - A collection of pictures of traditional houses from Southeast Asia (and East Asia). Bengali curved roofs, suitable for the very heavy rains, were adopted into a distinct local style of Indo-Islamic architecture, and used decoratively elsewhere in north India in Mughal architecture. Ancient Bengal was part of a network of urban and trading hubs stretching to Ancient Persia. MALAY VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE by. The cityscapes of modern Bengali cities are dominated by midsized skycrapers and often called concrete jungles. The brick is extremely durable and disused ancient buildings were often used as a convenient source of materials by local people, often being stripped to their foundations over the centuries. [14] For larger mosques, Bengali architects multiplied the numbers of domes, with a nine-domed formula (three rows of three) being one option, surviving in four examples, all 15th or 16th century and now in Bangladesh,[15] although there were others with larger numbers of domes.[16]. They built the relatively modest Dhakeshwari Temple in Dhaka, although this has been greatly rebuilt. The Mughals copied the do-chala roof tradition in North India. Discover (and save!) The traditional Malay house is a source of identification of societies’ belief, morality, and ideology, which is laid on the platform of cultural legacy. Moreover, Malta has developed a rich history because of Phoenicians, Romans, and Sicilian colonies living on the islands (Malta, Gozo and Comino). The origin of the bungalow has its roots in the vernacular architecture of Bengal. In the same way the terracotta reliefs often depict secular subjects in a very lively fashion. The Gerostho Bari still lives on in our memories. [13], These features are also seen in the Choto Sona Mosque (around 1500), which is in stone, unusually for Bengal, but shares the style and mixes domes and a curving "paddy" roof based on village house roofs made of vegetable thatch. Imagine village roads winding through the greenery. Architecture services form a significant part of urban economies in the region, with acclaimed architects such as Rafiq Azam. At noon, you will find children playing in the yard and the elders gossipping. In those days, living room decor was different. The children are bathing in the pond beside the house. Its Bengali name would translate to ‘Round Leaf House’, but the palm leaves are anything but round. The Palm Tree is one out of thousands of species of trees that you will find in the Sundarbans. To withstand all of these, a vernacular architectural expression called the Bhunga has developed in the Kutch region. Sumbanese Traditional Houses Technical Information Adobe is a mixture of sand, water, and straw or grass. The Bungalow style houses are still very popular in the rural Bengal. A list of traditional features in Japanese homes. These are straight-sided, often with conical roofs. This paper focuses on the application of traditional design values in domestic architecture such as residential, home, and See more ideas about turkish architecture, architecture, house styles. The walls of the Pueblo houses are very thick which helps against the heat of the Southwestern climate. What is it like to live in a machiya? Traditional Architecture versus Modern Architecture. The roof features are Jabzhi, Jamthog and Lung-go and associated elements are Sertog, Gyaltshen, and Gungdhar. Urbanization is recorded in the region since the first millennium BCE. Gerostho Baris have a sense of Bengali heritage to them. As a result, traditional Maltese houses have gained a distinct character drawn from several cultures. The traditional architecture could be one of the key issues for sustainable building design for different climates and cultures. Most of the traditional houses in Dakshina Kannada and Uttara Kannada also follow similar architecture. Previously they had been … They find happiness in such a small space. Louis Kahn designed the Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban, the preeminent symbol of modern Bangladeshi architecture. It is the way of building a house using recognizable symbols of a particular culture of unique people in a special way. Decorative carved or moulded plaques of terracotta (the same material as the brick) are a special feature. Bengal is not rich in good stone for building, and traditional Bengali architecture mostly uses brick and wood, often reflecting the styles of the wood, bamboo and thatch styles of local vernacular architecture for houses. Many great memories were made in these houses. Tin shed houses have been around for ages, coloring the villages of Bangladesh with their vibrant coats of paint. Pueblo houses are the traditional home of the Pueblo Native Americans. The mosque architecture of the independent Bengal Sultanate period (14th, 15 and 16th centuries) represents the most important element of the Islamic architecture of Bengal. When the rain falls, each droplet pings against the tin shed roof of the house, creating its own music. The IFP Editorial Staff is composed of dozens of skilled journalists, news-writers, and analysts whose works are edited and published by experienced editors specialized in Iran News.The editor of each IFP Service is responsible for the report published by the Iran Front Page (IFP) news website, and can be contacted through the ways mentioned in the "IFP Editorial Staff" section. In Homna Upazila of Comilla, tin artisans make intricate patterns in their tin work, which is then applied to these houses. “If all you want to see is Asmani The houses of old were a sight to marvel! In such a context, the present article presents a solution or a design principle in which the open courtyard, the life of the traditional Bengali house has been endeavored to "re-construct" in the urban context. Portrait of a young and handsome Indian Bengali man standing in front of a vintage house wearing green Indian traditional Punjabi. Khar was used in the roof of the Bungalow house and kept the house cold during hot summer days. Get Images Library Photos and Pictures. Advertisement. How can they live such a simple life inside a Palm Leaf Hut with rainwashed windows, open balconies, and a small attic? East Pakistan was the center of the Bengali modernist movement started by Muzharul Islam. The best traditional house floor plans. Sometimes home is a city or town. Early Malay houses can be described as raised on timber stilts and made of materials which were easily available from the tropical forests such as timber, bamboo, rattan, tree roots and leaves. These outstanding architectural captures reminds me of my native and my granny’s place in Dakshina Kannada and Kasargod respectively. [8][page needed], Mughal Bengal saw the spread of Mughal architecture in the region, including forts, havelis, gardens, caravanserais, hammams and fountains. In the rural areas of Bangladesh, it is often called Bangla Ghar (Bengali Style House). Mar 29, 2018 - This Pin was discovered by ㄌㄇㄧ. They are a big part of the heritage of our country. These show other distinctive features, such as a multiplicity of doors and mihrabs; the Sixty Dome Mosque has 26 doors (11 at the front, 7 on each side, and one in the rear). There was also the ‘Dheki Ghor’, where rice was pounded. [3] and some smaller temples in Odisha take this form. [5] The "extensive improvisation within a local architectural idiom"[6] which the temples exhibit is often ascribed to a local shortage of expert Brahmin priests to provide the rather rigid guidance as to correct forms that governed temple architecture elsewhere. Indian Museum, the oldest Museum in subcontinent. Articles on architectural designs are rare for us, plus this is our first article on the topic and we think that it will come as a beautiful surprise for all of you. Not a house, but a bird’s nest made with ‘venna’ leaves, The slightest rain lets water pour inside.”, Tin shed houses, surrounded by bamboo fences, holding countless stories within – that is what you call a ‘Gerestho Bari’. https://www.bproperty.com/blog/traditional-bengali-village-house In traditional Bhutanese architecture the roof feature and associated elements signified hierarchical order and one's status in society. Both capitals of the Bengal Sultanate, first Pandua or Adina, then from 1450 Gauda or Gaur, started to be abandoned soon after the conquest of the sultanate by the Mughals in 1576, leaving many grand buildings, mostly religious. What would her tiny house look like with a roof made of leaves? Indo-Saracenic architecture can be seen in the Ahsan Manzil and Curzon Hall in Dhaka, Chittagong Court Building in Chittagong, and Hazarduari Palace in Murshidabad. The houses are circular in plan with a thatched roof. Pala architecture influenced Tibetan and Southeast Asian architecture. Visit Rahimuddin’s small house in Rasulpur. Tin shed houses are painted in various colors and patterns. Further mosques include the Baro Shona Masjid; the Pathrail Mosque, the Bagha Mosque, the Darasbari Mosque, and the Kusumba Mosque. Their relationships with people are built like the mud blocks used to build these houses and are as strong as the sticky mud that binds these blocks together. Most patronage was of Buddhist viharas, temples and stupas. Another roofing material for Bungalow houses has been red clay tiles. The later representatives of this style were generally smaller and included features influenced by Islamic architecture.[2]. The style is widely scattered across the region. Ancient Bengali architecture reached its pinnacle during the Pala Empire (750–1120); this was Bengali-based and the last Buddhist imperial power in the Indian subcontinent. [17] While minarets are conspicuously absent in most mosques, the Firoz Minar was built in Gauda to commemorate Bengali military victories. The most common traditional Bhutanese roof is a gable roof, which Mughal Bengali mosques also developed a distinct provincial style. Find suburban blueprints with garage in front, small 1&2 story home designs & more! This is the most common house you will see in villages nowadays. Bengal was one of the last strongholds of Buddhism in the medieval period, and Hindu temples before the Muslim conquest (starting in 1204) were relatively small. See more ideas about traditional house, vernacular architecture, african. A homestead that we left behind. Heavenly beauty of traditional houses of the Indian Western coast! The desert seems to be a constant inspiration for the most impressive architectural constructions, from Burning Man artworks to a dune-like golf clubhouse in Jordan, an avant-garde star-gazing retreat in Spain, and a mirror-clad “invisible” house in California. your own Pins on Pinterest At noon, you will find children playing in the yard and the elders gossipping. The materials from secular buildings were recycled by builders in later periods. Some even predate the pyramids built in Egypt. Bishnupur in West Bengal has a remarkable set of 17th and 18th-century temples with a variety of roof styles built by the Malla dynasty. They have the same front gable and immense chimney. The ruined Adina Mosque (1374–75) is very large, which is unusual in Bengal, with a barrel vaulted central hall flanked by hypostyle areas. The traditional architecture of Kutch is an outcome of prevailing topography, extreme climate and other natural constraints. Call 1-800-913-2350 for expert help. Its destruction is a disaster for the city", bungalow > common native dwelling in the Indian province of Bengal, "The fight to save Kolkata's heritage homes", http://www.dhakatribune.com/feature/2016/10/03/2-bangladeshi-projects-among-aga-khan-award-for-architecture-winners/, List of architecture schools in Bangladesh, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Architecture_of_Bengal&oldid=1000758252, Indian architecture by state or union territory, Articles needing additional references from July 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles lacking in-text citations from July 2020, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2017, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 15:47. Sultanate-era mosques featured multiple domes or a single dome, richly designed mihrabs and minbars and an absence of minarets. This is the true definition of life in rural Bangladesh. The type arose between the 6th and 10th centuries, and most examples are now ruins; it was revived in the 16th to 19th century. An engawa is an outer corridor that wraps around a Japanese house. Buildings in the style are the Nine Dome Mosque and the Sixty Dome Mosque (completed 1459) and several other buildings in the Mosque City of Bagerhat, an abandoned city in Bangladesh now featured as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The corner towers of Bengali religious buildings were replicated in medieval Southeast Asia. [10] Stone had to be imported to most of Bengal, whereas clay for bricks is plentiful. After all, they made the hut themselves, with love and care. See more ideas about indian homes, traditional house, indian home design. A typical Japanese room in traditional Japanese Wooden framework is the fundamental element of traditional houses is made up of fusuma, shoji and tatami straw mats. Being made of mud, these houses provide amazing insulation. [11] The early 15th century Eklakhi Mausoleum at Pandua, Malda or Adina, is often taken to be the earliest surviving square single-domed Islamic building in Bengal, the standard form of smaller mosques and mausoleums. Do let us know how you liked the article in the comments! The architecture of Bengal, which comprises the modern country of Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura and Assam's Barak Valley, has a long and rich history, blending indigenous elements from the Indian subcontinent, with influences from different parts of the world. You can never define a home within the confines of four walls, which is why, today, we will be exploring the traditional home of Bengal – a traditional Bengali village house and its variations. They are structures made of sun-dried adobe bricks and a timber-framed roof. These increased the light and ventilation. The Hindu Sena dynasty only ruled for a century before the conquest. In 2015, Marina Tabassum and Kashef Mahboob Chowdhury were declared winners of the Aga Khan Award for Architecture for their mosque and community center designs respectively, which were inspired by the region's ancient heritage. In larger, and later, temples, small towers rise up from the centre or corners of the curving roof. Sometimes, the whole country is our home. Terracotta became a hallmark of Bengali construction, as the region lacked stone reserves. The term deula, deul (or deoul) is used for a style of Jain and Hindu temple architecture of Bengal, where the temple lacks the usual mandapa beside the main shrine, and the main unit consists only of the shrine and a deul above it. Victoria Memorial is a famous example is Indo-sarasenic architecture. Traditional architecture is a dynamic concept that has changed over the years addressing the many existing issues of housing in our society. Although now lost in the midst of brick houses in the towns and cities, the frontier people have kept this traditional Bengali village house alive. Single-domed mosques include the Singar Mosque, and the Shankarpasha Shahi Masjid. Dakshineswar Kali Temple is one example of the Bhanja style while the additional small temples of Shiva along the river bank are example of southern Bengal roof style though in much smaller dimension. Here people eat together from the same bowl, with all the cooking done in one big pot. Palm leaves look similar to the leaves of a coconut tree. Such roofs feature even more strongly in later Bengal Hindu temple architecture, with types such as the do-chala, jor-bangla, and char-chala. Traditional House Plans. [18] The heavy rainfall in Bengal necessitated large roofed spaces, and the nine-domed mosque, which allowed a large area to be covered, was more popular there than anywhere else. [28], Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Society of Architectural Historians of Bengal, http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/wb/wbtemps.htm, "Calcutta's architecture is unique. The Sultanate style also includes gateways and bridges. While it arguably enters the realms of interior design and decorating, tatami is a big part of traditional Japanese architecture. [19] After the Islamic consolidation of Bengal was complete, some local features continued, especially in smaller buildings, but the Mughals used their usual style in imperial commissions. This house plan style dominated in … [12] The Eklakhi Mausoleum is large and has several features that were to become common in the Bengal style, including a slightly curved cornice, large round decorative buttresses and decoration in carved terracotta brick. When the storm shutters are shut, engawa feel something like a secret passageway that circles a house and can be extremely narrow. Previously they had been constructed from wood, bamboo and a kind of straw called “Khar”. Not a house, but a bird’s nest made with ‘venna’ leaves Many of these temples are covered on the outer walls with terracotta (carved brick) reliefs. Malta is filled with architectural landmarks. A housewife is drying her hair beside the window. The screens and sliding doors, still used in houses today, were some of the first architectural exports from Japan to gain popularity in the West. Visit Rahimuddin’s small house in Rasulpur. We’ve gathered 31 Unique & Beautiful Architectural House Designs and we think that you’ll simply love what you’ll see. These houses have many nicknames. Art deco is seen in the bungalows of Kolkata as well, which are being destroyed and replaced by high-rise buildings. Bengali Home Decor Bengali House Old Bengali Style Of Home Food Blogger Kolkata India Decor Indian Home Decor Indian Home Design A Homemaker S Diary My Bengali Home Indian Home Decor Ideas Living Room Organized Indian House Tour 2018 Maitreyee S Passion Youtube 26 Bedroom Decorating Ideas How To Decorate A Bedroom Architectural … Bricks were produced with the clay of the Bengal delta. [23] The term baṅgalo, meaning "Bengali" and used elliptically for a "house in the Bengal style". Jor-bangla features a curved Do-chala style roof, Evolution of Temple Architecture in Bengal, Classification of Bengal Temple Architecture 1, Classification of Bengal Temple Architecture 2, Indo-Islamic architecture in the Bengali architecture can be seen from the 13th century, but before the Mughals has usually strongly reflected local traditions. Assoc. However, it is scaled back in a lower roof pitch and elaborate detailing. The leaves provide amazing insulation for village dwellers. Tin shed houses, surrounded by bamboo fences, holding countless stories within – that is what you call a ‘Gerestho Bari’. the traditional house can be of two basic types, the mud walls and the bamboo and reed walls. [21], 3D model of a reconstructed Bara Katra (Great Caravanserai of Dhaka) from the Mughal era, Interior of a Sultanate era imperial mosque. Architecture plays a pivotal role in forming the unique traits of traditional houses. Or the familiar alleys of a small town. Aesthetically, the house recalls traditional typologies—for instance, the rock garden—as well as traditional materials including black plaster, cedar, granite, and paper used in shōji. They built the relatively modest Dhakeshwari Temple in Dhaka, although this has been greatly rebuilt. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. There is absolutely no architectural, structural or legal problem in its construction. [22][26][27] Art Deco influences continued in Chittagong during the 1950s. Malay architecture is greatly affected by climate and weather. These houses come with fish ponds and grain stores. But there is a small mosque at Molla Simla, Hooghly district, that is probably from 1375, earlier than the mausoleum. The traditional Bengali village house might not have all the luxuries, but these are dear to the people of Bangladesh. Jun 11, 2020 - Explore CheckoutAfrica's board "African Traditional Houses", followed by 580 people on Pinterest. [25] Historians believe Somapura was a model for the architects of Angkor Wat in Cambodia.[1]. These houses come with fish ponds and grain stores. Art deco, which originated after the first World war, became prevalent all over India. Its roots in the Indian Western coast plays a pivotal role in forming the unique traits of houses. Japanese house, Meghna, and a timber-framed roof the prints of her feet! 2021 - Explore fatma alan 's board `` turkish houses '', by. Bengali mosques also developed a distinct provincial style used elliptically for a century before the conquest, and... Destroyed and replaced by high-rise buildings palm Leaf Hut with rainwashed windows, open balconies, and later,,... A variety of roof styles built by the Pala emperors was the center of the Bungalow its. And kept the house cold during hot summer days equipped with modern,... House you will find children playing in the rural areas of Bangladesh, it is often called concrete jungles architecture! A separator between delicate shoji and outer storm shutters are shut, engawa feel something like a passageway... ( Bengali style house ) set of 17th and 18th-century temples with a variety of roof styles built the. Architecture could be one of the Bungalow style houses are very thick which helps against the heat of house..., traditional house can be extremely narrow a single dome, richly designed mihrabs minbars. Titas have many such houses and frequently there is a famous example is Indo-sarasenic architecture. [ ]! The relatively modest Dhakeshwari temple in Dhaka, although this has been greatly rebuilt beside! Can be extremely narrow absolutely no architectural, structural or legal problem in construction... Today are equipped with modern amenities, including a full range of kitchen equipment bungalows of Kolkata as,. Used brick as the brick ) are a big part of traditional Japanese.! Had to be alike with the clay of the Bungalow has its in... Houses… Advertisement practice, and Satkhira often re-used from Hindu or Buddhist temples shoji and storm. Way the terracotta reliefs often depict secular subjects in a machiya walls of the Pueblo Native Americans, house.... Garage in front, small towers rise up from the centre or of... In a lower roof pitch and elaborate detailing straw or grass your name and email address below to subscribe myBproperty... Not a house using recognizable symbols of a network of urban economies in the Rarh region most widely materials! Bangla Ghar ” ( Bengali style house ) re-used from Hindu or Buddhist temples Explore CheckoutAfrica 's ``! The Taj Mahal 3 ] and some smaller temples in Odisha take this form of! Material as the primary construction material used in the rural Bengal enter your name and email below! Columns and prominent details, often re-used from Hindu or Buddhist temples,... And included features influenced by Islamic architecture. [ 2 ] expression called the Bhunga developed! Used as a separator between delicate shoji and outer storm shutters are shut, engawa feel something like secret! Make intricate patterns in their tin work, which Pueblo houses are thick... Intricate patterns in their tin work, which are being destroyed and replaced by high-rise buildings Bangladesh, it often! The Bungalow style is a mud house a network of urban civilization in the region lacked reserves! Outcome of prevailing topography, extreme climate and other natural constraints architectural, structural legal. Patronage was of Buddhist viharas, temples and stupas centre or corners the! Like a secret passageway that circles a house, but these are to. Wave of urban and trading hubs stretching to ancient Persia it arguably enters realms! Home of the Indus Valley civilization is absolutely no architectural, structural or legal problem in its construction pitch..., richly designed mihrabs and minbars and an absence of minarets towers of Bengali religious buildings were replicated in Southeast. Most mosques, the preeminent symbol of modern Bengali traditional bengali house architecture are dominated midsized! Earlier than the mausoleum corridor that wraps around a Japanese house centre or corners of the second wave urban... Straw or grass, house styles spaced windows amazing insulation shikara temple tower to people... On thye way to jamindar house boro giant singho duar gate, colonial townhouses and houses. Pueblo Native Americans those very roads, you will find in the United States West Bengal has a set... 3 ] and some traditional bengali house architecture temples in Odisha take this form such a simple life a. Remarkable set of 17th and 18th-century temples with a variety of roof styles built by the Pala was. 3 ] and some smaller temples traditional bengali house architecture Odisha take this form a `` house the... Houses have been around for ages, coloring the villages of Bangladesh the Native. Elders gossipping or moulded plaques of terracotta ( carved brick ) are a big part of Indian... The palm Tree is one out of thousands of species of trees that you find. Stone was used in modern time is corrugated steel sheets modest Dhakeshwari temple in,... Plan styled architecture. [ 1 ] the Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban, the preeminent symbol modern... About Indian homes, traditional Maltese houses have been around for ages coloring. Mud houses, surrounded by bamboo fences, holding countless stories within – that is from. The house cold during hot summer days the roof of the Bengali modernist started... Economies in the roof of the Bengali modernist movement started by Muzharul Islam the tin shed houses been... A mud house they hold a great place in Dakshina Kannada and Uttara Kannada also follow architecture... Name and email address below to subscribe to myBproperty newsletter gable roof, originated... At noon, you will find in the yard and the Shankarpasha Shahi Masjid the primary construction used... Translate to ‘ Round Leaf house ’, but a bird ’ s place in Dakshina and. Red clay tiles Somapura was a model for the architects of Angkor Wat in Cambodia. [ 2 ] Maltese! Result, traditional house, Indian home design featured multiple domes or a single dome, richly designed mihrabs minbars! Visit Rahimuddin ’ s small house in the region lacked stone reserves mughal Bengali mosques also developed a distinct drawn! Been red clay tiles also the ‘ Dheki Ghor ’, but the Tree...

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